Sahyadri Conservation Series - 11 ENVIS Technical Report: 35,  February 2012
http://www.iisc.ernet.in/
AGHANASHINI ESTUARY IN KUMTA TALUK, UTTARA KANNADA - BIOLOGICAL HERITAGE SITE
http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/
Subash Chandran MD           Prakash Mesta            M. Boominathan            G. R. Rao            D.M. Vishnu            Ramachandra TV
Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences,
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560012, India.
*Corresponding author: cestvr@ces.iisc.ernet.in

DECLARATION OF BIOLOGICAL HERITAGE SITE UNDER BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ACT 2002

Note: The proposal made here is for Aghanashini Estuary Biological Heritage Site in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka. Although the estuary itself is unique in biodiversity and productivity, due to the practical problems that could arise in managing the entire estuary as one unit, two separate core areas are identified within it as Location-1 and Location-2, the former of tremendous importance in Molluscan (bivalves) productivity and the latter of importance for the mangrove ecosystem, which is the core area for biodiversity and productivity. As the estuary is one biologically integrated unit the two locations within it are to be brought under a single Heritage Site Management Committee. The two locations have been described separately for convenience.

1. Identification of Property
  1. State                                     : Karnataka
  2. Name of the property            : Aghanashini Estuary Biological Heritage  Site:
  3.                                                       Location I: Bivalve Mudflats
  4. Exact location                       : Situated in Kumta taluk of Uttara Kannada
                                                   district. Lat. 14.520833-14.539342 N & 74.353754-74.369593 E
  5. Maps/plans showing boundary of area proposed: Figures 1, 2 & 3
  6. Area of Location I                :  About 229 ha
2. Justification for Declaration
  1. What is the significance of   proposed site (Location-1)?
    1. A highly productive estuary
    2. Aghanashini River in central Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka originates in the Western Ghats and flows westward towards the Arabian Sea, major part of its course through forested gorges and valleys. Having no dams and no notable industrial establishments or major townships along its banks the river may be considered one of the most pristine ones along the west coast. The River meets the sea in the Aghanashini village of Kumta taluk. The tidal portion, or estuary, towards the river mouth is a flat expanse of water dotted with small islands and narrow creeks. This portion, designated as the Aghanashini estuary, is a highly productive and biologically rich waterscape of coastal Karnataka.

      The high productivity of the estuary is due to the following reasons:

      1. The river water carries large quantity of organic materials from the forests in the catchment area of the Western Ghats and deposits the same in the estuary. The debris becomes important base for food chains operating in the estuary
      2. The rich mangrove vegetation of the estuary plays significant role in nutrient supply for the diverse faunal community and provide shelter for birds and act as nurseries for many species of fishes and prawns
      3. The rich bird community (over 120 species)associated with the estuary contributes to the nutrient cycling through their potash and nitrogen rich castings (Details in Annexure I)
      4. The constant churning and circulation of waters due to flow of fresh water from one side and the tidal influx from the Arabian Sea oxygenates the water and circulates the nutrients
    1. Significance of bivalve (shellfish) production
    2. Estuaries are ranked among the highest productive ecosystems of the earth. One of the most notable economic and subsistence output of the Aghanashini estuary is the bivalves (Phylum: Mollusca). The meat of these invertebrates is used as a protein rich food by thousands people along the coastal areas of Karnataka and Goa.

      Total annual production: Estimated at 22,006 tons, valued at Rs.57.8 million per annum.  Most of the of bivalves harvested belong to Paphia  malabarica, although six other edible species are also gathered in lesser quantities. Bulk of the bivalve harvest is from mudflats bordering the village by name Aghanashini, close to the mouth of the river (bearing the same name). Collectively these bivalve harvesting areas measure about 229 ha.  (Boominathan et al., 2008). It is significant to note that so much of food production is without any investment or supply of feeds by humans.  Details are provided in Annexure II.

      Constanza et al. (1997) estimated the value of an estuary as Rs.1141600/ha/year. This value is the aggregate of all goods and services such as shrimps, fish, crabs, salt, mangroves, in addition to services such as fish spawning grounds, nutrient cycling, hydrology, flood control, soil protection, sink for carbon etc. It is notable that we have provided for the proposed BHS the value of bivalves only and not the other goods and services.

      Crucial role in local economy: Bivalve harvesting is the most important aspect of small scale informal fisheries of Kumta coast, an activity traditionally carried out by even persons from non-fishing communities, for family food security and for sale. Bivalve collection provided direct employment for 2,347 people according to the study referred to Boominathan et al., (2008). Of the harvesters 1,738 collectors were men and 609 were women. The collectors belonged to 19 estuarine villages and congregate in mudflats closer to Aghanashini village during the low tide time for harvesting. The bivalve-linked activities also include minor processing at the site, transportation, collection and sale of empty shells and drying of bivalve meat in small quantities for storage and future use. The calcium rich bivalve shells are used for lime making. The bivalve shell lime is of superior quality for white washing, as fertilizer, prawn feed, poultry feed, production of high grade cement etc.

      Food security: Bivalves from the Aghanashini estuary provide excellent protein and mineral rich food for an estimated 198,000 people, especially along the coast. The Indian edible bivalves have protein (5-14%), fats (0.5-3%), calcium (0.04-1.84%), phosphorus (0.1-0.2%) and iron (1-29 mg/100 g of fresh weight) – CSIR (1962).

      Ecosystem richness and productivity: The abundant annual production of edible bivalves reflects the rich biodiversity of the estuary in general, which also has around 150 species of fishes, 120 species of birds, 13 species of mangroves, numerous mangrove associates and many more species of lower plants. Organic debris from the bio-diverse community of the estuary itself as well as that brought into the estuary from the Western Ghat forests collectively contributes towards the high production of bivalves

  1. Why the declaration is proposed? Give justification
  2. The proposal is put forward to declare the major bivalve gathering area of 229 ha as part of (Location-1) of Biological Heritage Site due to the following reasons.

    1. The bivalve rich area mentioned is the culmination of numerous food chains in the estuary and beyond from the Western Ghats from where nutrients reach the estuary through the river
    2. The local population has strong cultural bonds with the river, which they treat as Goddess. A long history of human association with the river can be traced, as integral part of people’s culture and livelihood activities such as fishing, fish and prawn culturing, mangrove planting and utilization, transportation, estuarine rice farming, salt making etc.
    3. The edible bivalve rich mudflats of Aghanashini may be considered as unique, ecologically fragile areas, as their productivity is due to their location towards the river mouth, at appropriate flooding depth during high tides, suitable salinity ranges, and accumulation of a huge quantity organic debris.
    4. Several aquatic and terrestrial bird species, including migrant species use the bivalves and other organisms of nutrient rich bivalve beds as their food.
    5. The site recommended for consideration as BHS is  not covered under Protected Area network under the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 as amended
    6. No village community has exclusive jurisdiction over the proposed area, although bivalve gatherers assemble here from 19 estuarine villages.
    7. Bivalve gathering, just like fisheries, has been a subsistence and economic activity from pre-historical times. Unlike fisheries the bivalve gathering is not an activity that needs high skills. It belongs to the sector of ‘informal fisheries’. The bivalve production area and activity of gathering and utilization may be considered a common heritage of the people of Aghanashini estuary.
    8. As such the bivalve collection activity is not regulated by any norms made by local communities. It is an unregulated, open to all economic activity engaged in by people, irrespective of caste and community. The activity was carried out traditionally on sustainable basis, more to cater local needs. Over the last few years large scale transportation of bivalves especially to Goa market has resulted in local famine and raises question of sustainability of the resource.
    9. As the bivalve harvesting areas are totally unprotected by any laws from any destructive type development activity or any other kind of disturbances that might happen in the future, in the very site or in any adjoining areas, that could adversely affect the food web of the estuary, it has become necessary to bring such critical areas under Location-1 of ‘Aghanashini Biodviersity Heritage Site’.
    10. As there is involved here an issue of common resource being used from generations by a set of villages, the proposed property is beyond the jurisdiction of any single Biodiversity Management Committee (BMC) or village panchayat. Section 6a of the Guidelines for selection and management of Biodiversity Heritage Sites (National Biodiversity Authority, 2009) states: “Wherever the BHS extends to more than one local bodies, the management of the BHS shall be the responsibility of the Biodiversity Heritage Site Management Committee ….. approved by the SBB”. Here therefore, the State Government’s role will come into play in the process of declaration, management and monitoring.
  1. Threat if any (give details)

For generations together the edible bivalve production areas adjoining Aghanashini village were used sustainably by the village communities as production has been abundant and the demand was mainly local. However in the recent years the demand has shot up from outside markets, especially from Goa, causing unprecedented over-harvesting. As many village communities are traditionally associated with bivalve gathering in the same production areas it is beyond the jurisdiction of any single gram panchayat or the local BMC to regulate harvests within sustainable limits. This situation could spell doom to the sustainability of the resource within few years. Further, the estuary is likely to be affected by various developmental interventions in the absence of any biodiversity centred, state sponsored governance.

3. Description

Present status of conservation

Need for conservation was not felt until recent years, when demand for bivalves as food was more local than from outside. As resource was abundant and extraction pressures limited to sustainable limits there was no need to adopt any special measures of conservation. But such need has arisen now due to over-exploitation for catering to outside markets.

4.  Management
  1. Ownership: The part of estuary producing huge quantity of edible bivalves is under the jurisdiction of the Government of Karnataka; no private agency or village panchayat has special rights over the 229 hectares of Location-1 of the proposed BHS.
  2. Legal status: proposed area comes under the ownership of the Government of Karnataka
  3. Agency to manage the site after declaration: The ‘Guidelines for Selection and Management of Biodiversity Heritage Sites’ (http://nbaindia.org/wb_day.htm) states under Section 6 (only relevant clauses presented here):
    1. Wherever the BHS extends to more than one local bodies, the management of the BHS shall be the responsibility of the Biodiversity Heritage Site Management Committee constituted by the BMC or other local institutions linked to the local bodies in case BMC does not exist, and approved by the SBB.
    2. The committee responsible for the management of the BHS shall include representatives of all sections of local communities, and in particular those most dependent on the natural resources as also those who have been traditionally conserving the area.
    3. It shall be responsibility of the BMC/BHS Management Committee to prepare and implement a management plan for the BHS which should cover a period of five to ten years
    4. SBBs will then recognize and facilitate the implementation of the final management plan. Such facilitation shall include direction to all relevant government departments to assist the communities in implementation, including through appropriate changes in their plans and schemes, to eliminate biodiversity-damaging practices and to fully enable and empower the communities in conserving biodiversity. Where necessary orientation programmes shall be organized for such departments and NGOs.
    5. Any project/activity to be implemented by government or any other agency, which is likely to have adverse impact on the BHS may be avoided.
    6. Restriction in form of regulating the use of the resources may be warranted in some cases and such restriction shall be totally voluntary on the part of the community.
  4. Name, designation and address of responsible  person/institution for contact:
  5. (common for Location -1 & Location – II of proposed BHS)

  6. Sources of expertise : Centre for Ecological Sciences (Indian Institute of Science),
  7. Field Station, Viveknagar, Kumta- 581343

5. Factors Affecting the Site
  1. Pressures affecting the site  (Encroachment, Agriculture etc.): nil
  2. Environmental pressures: Getting subjected to unregulated exploitation, due to non-sustainable harvests of late
  3. Visitor/tourism pressures: nil
6. Documentation
  1. Photographs : Photographs for Location-1attached
  2. Existing site management plans if any: ‘Snehakunja’, Kasarkod, an important local NGO had conducted programmes for estuarine communities on CRZ awareness, mangroves, need for sustainable harvests of bivalves etc.

7. Opinion of other concerned stakeholders: Stakeholders (local fishing communities, other bivalve gatherers and traders) would welcome introduction of sustainable management system

8. Details of disputes if any on the site: Nil

9. General remarks if any: Declaration of Location-I as part of BHS and formulation of appropriate management plans for bivalve harvests, in combination with Location- 2, mangrove area will have good positive effects on the mollusk habitat and production and thereby ensure livelihoods and food security of the local communities.

   Figure 1: Uttara Kannada District Showing Location of Proposed Aghanashini Bivalve Biodiversity Heritage Site

Figure 2: Proposed Aghanashini Biodiversity Heritage Site in the Estuary

Figure 3: Aghanashini River Estuary with surrounding villages

BHS Location I

1. Bivalve collection in exposed mud-flats

      2: Using canoes for bivalve collection and transportation

 3.  Women collecting edible bivalves

4. View of edible bivalves on nutrient rich mudflats

5.  Bivalve cleaning and sorting- a major activity of women

6. Bivalves packed for transportation to Goa

DESCRIPTION OF LOCATION- 2 OF AGHANASHINI ESTUARY BHS

1. Identification of Property
  1. State                                      : Karnataka
  2. Name of the property            : Aghanashini River Mangrove Biodiversity Heritage Site
  3. Exact location                         : Situated in Kumta taluk of Uttara Kannada district.
                                                      Lat. 14.52083-14.53934 N to 74.35375-74.36959 E
  4. Maps/plans showing boundary of area proposed: Figures 1, 2 and 4
  5. Area of site proposed for declaration  :  About 67 ha

2. Justification for Declaration

  1. What is the significance of   proposed site?
    1. Aghanashini River in central Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka originates in the Western Ghats and flows westward towards the Arabian Sea, major part of its course through forested gorges and valleys. Having no dams and no notable industrial establishments or major townships along its banks the river may be considered one of the most pristine along the west coast. The River joins the sea in the Aghanashini village of Kumta taluk. The tidal portion, or estuary, towards the river mouth is a flat expanse of water dotted with small islands and narrow creeks.
    2. Through millennia the estuary and its environs formed the lifeline of the people and constitute a major cultural and historical heritage of the west coast. It was known as a rice bowl in the historical times and rice surplus was transported through water crafts to other regions. The Mirjan fort on the bank of the estuary built by Bijapur Sultans and the ruins of Aghanashini fort on a hill towards the river mouth giving a commanding view of the sea, the estuary and the Western Ghats are testimonials for the historical and cultural importance of the region. Spices grown in the hinterlands of Western Ghats were traded through the estuary during the European period and earlier to it. Gokarna on its shores has been, from time immemorial, a great place of pilgrimage. Before the road networks came the estuary was a major route for transportation of pilgrims. The beaches dotting the coastline of Gokarna are today well known places of tourism. The picturesque estuary with flourishing mangrove vegetation, its rich birdlife, and traditional way of life of the people need to be protected as a cultural heritage and draw for tourism. 
    3. The estuary is a highly productive and biologically rich waterscape of coastal Karnataka. Whereas hundreds of families in the shore villages have direct dependence on it for their livelihoods through activities related to fishing, agriculture, collection of edible bivalves and crabs, shrimp aquaculture, traditional fish farming in the gazni rice fields, bivalve shell mining, salt production, sand removal, water transportation etc. scores of consumers in the estuarine villages and in places far away are benefited by the productivity of the estuary, of which the mangroves constitute the heart. The high productivity of the estuary is due to the following reasons:
    4. The river water carries large quantity of organic materials from the forests in the catchment area of the Western Ghats and deposits the same in the estuary. The debris becomes important base for food chains operating in the estuary and beyond in the offshore waters of the sea
    5. The rich mangrove vegetation has significant role in food supply for the diverse faunal community. The mangrove swamp acts as food rich and protective nurseries even for many species of marine fishes and prawns, which lay eggs in the swamp.  
    6. The rich bird community (over 120 species, about half of them winter visitors )associated with the estuarine ecosystem   contributes substantially to the nutrient cycling through their potash and nitrogen rich castings
    7. The constant churning and circulation of waters due to flow of fresh water from one side and the tidal influx from the Arabian Sea oxygenates the water and circulates nutrients.
  1. Why the declaration is proposed? Give justification
    1. Importance of mangroves: Mangroves are in the heart of estuarine ecosystem and  productivity. Their influence is pronounced not only in the estuaries but also extends far into the offshore areas. Tropical estuaries are ranked among the top productive ecosystems of the world, at par with the coral reefs. The major reason for their productivity is attributed to the mangrove vegetation. There are also other reasons for ranking mangroves high in the conservation circles.
    2. Mangroves contribute nutrients to the estuarine-marine ecosystem through litter-fall    that turn into nutrients eventually. These nutrients contribute significantly towards food web and productivity of the estuary and the coastal sea. The detritus and filter feeding organisms like bivalves contribute substantially to the income and food of the local people. People engaged in bivalve trade and consumers far away are also benefited. The bivalve shell gathering is a major, estuary based enterprise providing direct employment for about 600 persons and many more in associated trade and production of goods using shells such as poultry feed, cement, shell lime, paint, fertilizers etc. The annual output of shells from Aghanashini estuary is estimated to be around 100,000 tons worth Rs.5-6 crores. Fishermen report of good catch of fish closer to mangrove patches than elsewhere. Details are provided in the Annexure II.
    3. Mangroves act as nursery for fishes and prawns. Many sea fish visit nutrient rich mangrove area for laying eggs so that the juveniles grow amidst abundance of food before they leave for the sea. Resident estuarine fishes also take benefit of the mangrove areas for their food and breeding. The mangroves with their entanglement of roots making a dense impenetrable cover provide a safe place for fishes and prawns securing them from predators. The fishermen also do not cast their nets within the mangrove areas due to the physical obstacles created by the root network.
    4. Mangroves of Aghanashini provide good roosting place for many species of     birds,which find rich food supply in the estuary apart from shelter provided by the mangroves. More than 120 species of birds, half of them migrants, have been recorded (Annexure-1. for recently observed birds) Mangroves protect the islands and mainland from erosion and trap soil and debris that come along with the run-off of the rainy season.
    5. Traditionally the local farmers used to plant mangroves alongside the earthen   embankments of their gazni rice field cum fish farming areas. These mangroves helped in stabilizing the bunds from erosion due to tides and waves and torrential rains of the region. Ever-since the Government built permanent embankments in the estuaries to protect the rice fields the practice of planting mangroves by the locals almost waned out. Nevertheless the Forest Department, during the last one decade raised mangroves in large areas of the estuary. When fully grown these mangroves will make the estuary a haven for birds, increase productivity of the estuary in terms of fish, prawns, crabs, bivalves, oysters etc.
    6. In the heart of the mangrove enriched estuarine centre is a small uninhabited island   which is the abode of ‘Babrudevaru’, the guardian deity of the estuary. The deity is worshipped by people from all the estuarine villages who have strong cultural bonds with the deity. A stretch of mangrove forest dominated by the several ancient trees of Avicennia officinalis is considered so sacred that no one should step inside it wearing footwear. Numerous birds, both migratory (during winter) and resident ones are associated with this sacred kan forest.
    7. The huge production of edible bivalves in the mudflats adjoining Aghanashini river mouth, although some kilometers away from the proposed mangrove heritage site, owe their productivity to the rich input of detritus from mangroves in addition to the organic matter input brought into the estuary from the Western Ghats.
    8. The site recommended for consideration as Location- II of BHS is not covered under      Protected Area network under the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 as amended.
      • No village community has exclusive jurisdiction over the proposed area, nor the Forest Department has any legal rights over there, in spite of the Department being responsible for enriching the estuary with mangroves for the last one decade and conserving it. The mangroves do not come under the Reserved Forest and are vulnerable to damages in the future in the absence of any formal protective measures. Their continued existence has to solely depend on the levels of awareness among the public and the constant vigil that the Department has to keep. Therefore the BHS status can be justified.
      • Any decline in mangroves will have severe adverse consequences not only on mangroves but also on the estuarine ecosystem and productivity as a whole; both goods and services from the estuary, will be adversely affected by such contingencies.
      • There is involved here an issue of common property resources, beyond the jurisdiction of any single Biodiversity Management Committee (BMC) or village panchayat. Section 6a of the Guidelines for selection and management of Biodiversity Heritage Sites issued by the National Biodiversity (2009) Authority states: “Wherever the BHS extends to more than one local bodies, the management of the BHS shall be the responsibility of the Biodiversity Heritage Site Management Committee ….. approved by the SBB”. Here therefore, the State Government’s role will come into play in the process of declaration, management and monitoring.
  1. Threat if any (give details)

The estuarine farmers were aware of the importance of mangroves in protecting the earthen bunds of their estuarine rice fields locally known as gaznis. Their practice from time immemorial was to raise mangrove trees alongside the gazni bunds. When the Government constructed permanent embankments for the gaznis to ensure better protection from salt water inundation on a permanent basis, the awareness pertaining to the importance on the role of mangroves dwindled among the local population. The growth of shrimp farming as an enterprise resulted in the creation of numerous aqua-cultural ponds, very often destroying the mangrove vegetation in the process. Such degradation of the mangroves continued until the end of the last century, until the Forest Department came in a big way to restore mangroves, by planting over a million saplings during the last one decade. As a permanent management mechanism for the mangroves is wanting this precious ecosystem any time in future is likely to be affected, to meet demand for timber and firewood from locals as well as outside.  Further, in the absence of any formal protective mechanism the mangrove ecosystem stands to be affected by increasing developmental pressures in the densely populated coastal region.

3. Description

  1. Present status of conservation
  2. As the Forest Department is taking constant care of the mangroves and creating awareness among the local communities, the spread and growth of mangrove community, not only in the proposed BHS but also elsewhere in the estuary, presently is remarkable.

4. Management

  1. Ownership: The part of estuary proposed under Mangrove Biodiversity Heritage Site is under the jurisdiction of the Government of Karnataka; no private agency or village panchayat has special rights over the mangrove areas proposed for BHS.  The prawn farms or privately owned rice fields adjoining the mangrove areas have been excluded from the purview of the BHS. No gram panchayat boundary extends into those parts of the estuary proposed to be under the mangrove BHS.
  2. Legal status: proposed area comes under Government of Karnataka
  3. Agency to manage the site after declaration: The ‘Guidelines for Selection and Management of Biodiversity Heritage Sites’ (http://nbaindia.org/wb_day.htm) states under Section 6 (only relevant clauses presented here):
    1. Wherever the BHS extends to more than one local bodies, the management of the BHS shall be the responsibility of the Biodiversity Heritage Site Management Committee constituted by the BMC or other local institutions linked to the local bodies in case BMC does not exist, and approved by the State Biodiversity Board.
    2. The committee responsible for the management of the BHS shall include representatives of all sections of local communities, and in particular those most dependent on the natural resources as also those who have been traditionally conserving the area.
    3. It shall be responsibility of the BMC/BHS Management Committee to prepare and implement a management plan for the BHS which should cover a period of five to ten years
    4. SBBs will then recognize and facilitate the implementation of the final management plan. Such facilitation shall include direction to all relevant government departments to assist the communities in implementation, including through appropriate changes in their plans and schemes, to eliminate biodiversity-damaging practices and to fully enable and empower the communities in conserving biodiversity. Where necessary orientation programmes shall be organized for such departments and NGOs.
    5. Any project/activity to be implemented by government or any other agency, which is likely to have adverse impact on the BHS may be avoided.
    6. Restriction in form of regulating the use of the resources may be warranted in some cases and such restriction shall be totally voluntary on the part of the community.
  4. Name, designation and address of responsible  person/agency for contact:
    1. The  Western Ghats Task Force, Government of Karnataka
    2. The Honavar Forest Division, Karnataka Forest Department
    3. The Centre for Ecological Sciences (Indian Institute of Science), Field Station, Viveknagar, Kumta

5. Factors Affecting the Site

  1. Pressures affecting the site  (Encroachment, Agriculture etc.): nil
  2. Environmental pressure: Presently not significant
  3. Visitor/tourism pressures: nil

6. Documentation

  1. Photographs : attached
  2. Existing site management plans if any: Forest Department, Honavar Division carried  out many programmes among local people to develop positive attitude towards mangrove ecosystem. ‘Snehakunja’, Kasarkod had conducted programmes for estuarine communities on CRZ awareness, mangrove planting, need for sustainable harvests of bivalves etc. The Centre for Ecological Sciences (IISc) is conducting Carrying Capacity Studies in the estuary.

7. Opinion of other concerned stakeholders: Stakeholders (local fishing communities, and      farmers) would welcome BHS status and introduction of sustainable management system

8. Details of disputes if any on the site: Nil

9. General remarks if any: Declaration of BHS and formulation of appropriate management plans will strengthen mangrove ecosystem that could benefit the goods and services from the estuary substantially which will promote goodwill of the local communities towards such a precious heritage ranked among the highest productive ecosystems of the earth.

Date:                                                                           
Place:                                                                                                                                                                     Signature of proposer

 

References

  • Boominathan, M., Chandran, MDS & Ramachandra, TV. 2008. Economic valuation of bivalves in the Aghanashini estuary, West Coast, Karnataka. ENVIS Technical Report 3, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
  • Constanza, R. et al. 1997. The valuation of world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387: 253-260.
  • CSIR 1962. The Wealth of India: Raw materials Vol. VI, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi.
  • National Biodiversity Authority. 2009. Guidelines for Selection and Management of Biodiversity Heritage Sites (http://nbaindia.org/wb_day.htm)

 

Figure 4: Proposed demarcation for BHS Location 2 showing mangrove areas in Aghanashini Estuary

Photographs of Mangroves in Location II

1. Root entanglement of Avicennia officinalis

2. Hanging seedlings of Rhizophora mucronata

3. A mangrove sacred grove in Masurkurve, Location-2

4. Transporting grass from mangrove swamp

5. A high density mangrove plantation in the estuary

 

Annexure-1: BIRDS OF AGHANASHINI ESTUARY IN KUMTA TALUK OF UTTARA KANNADA
     
SN SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME
1 Pavo cristatus Indian peafowl
2 Vanellus indicus Redwattled lapwing
3 Streptopelia chinensis Blossomheaded parakeet
4 Psittacula cyanocephala Indian spotted dove
5 Loriculus vernalis Indian loriquet
6 Eudymamys scolopacea Indian koel
7 Cetropus sinensis Crow pheasnat
8 Cypsiurus parvus Indian palm swift
9 Hemiprocne longipennis Crested tree swift
10 Alcedo atthis Small blue kingfisher
11 Pelargopsis capensis Brownheaded storkbilled kingfisher
12 Halcyon smyrnensis Whitebreasted kingfisher
13 Merops leschenaulti Chestnut-headed bee-eater
14 Merops orientalis Small green bee-eater
15 Anthracocerus coronatus Malabar pied hornbill
16 Megalaema viridis Small green barbet
17 Dinopaeum benghalense Malabar goldenbacked woodpecker
18 Hirundo smithii Indian wiretailed swallow
19 Hirundo daurica Himalayan striated swallow
20 Lanius schach Rufousbacked shrike
21 Oriolus xanthornus Indian balackheaded oriole
22 Acridotheres tristis Indian myna
23 Acridotheres fuscus Indian jungle myna
24 Dendrocitta vagabunda Indian treepie
25 Corvus macrorhynchos Indain jungle crow
26 Coracina novaehollandiae Indian large cuckoo shrike
27 Aegithina tiphia Peninsular Indian iora
28 Pycnonotus jocosus Redwhiskered bulbul
29 Pycnonotus cafer Redvented bulbul
30 Muscicapa tickelliae Tickell's blue flycatcher
31 Orthotomus sutorius Indian tailorbird
32 Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth's reed warbler
33 Phylloscopus trochiloides Greenish reed warbler
34 Phylloscopus occipitalis Largecrowned leaf warbler
35 Copsicus saularis Indian magpie robin
36 Motacilla maderaspatensis Large pied wagtail
37 Indian purple sunbird Nectarinia asiatica
38 Bulbulcus ibis Cattle egret
39 Erymopterix grisea Ashycrowned pinchlark
40 Galerida malabarica Malabar crested lark
41 Alauda gulgula Indian small skylark
42 Corvus splendens Indian housecrow
43 Pycnonotus luteolus Whitebrowed bulbul
44 Anthus novaeseelandiae Richard's pipit
45 Nectarinia zeylonica Purplerumped sunbird
46 Ploceus philippinus Indian baya
47 Ardeola grayii Pond heron
48 Vanellus malabaricus Yellow-wattled lapwing
49 Turdoides affinis Whiteheaded babbler
59 Motacilla cinerea
51 Psittacula kramerii Roseringed parakeet
52 Apus affinis Indian house swift
53 Anas acuta Pintail
54 Milvus migrans Paraih kite
55 Haliaster indus Brahminy kite
56 Coracias benghalensis Indian roller
57 Hirundo rustica Eastern swallow
58 Saxicola torquata Indian collared bushchat
59 Accipitor badius Indian shikra
60 Haliaeetus leucogaster Whitebellied sea eagle
61 Columba livia Blue rock pigeon
62 Merops phillippinensis Small green bee-eater
63 Sturnus pagodarum Blackheaded myna
64 Prinia socialis Ashy wren warbler
65 Phyllacrocorax niger Little cormorant
66 Ardea cinerea Grey heron
67 Ardea alba Large egret
68 Butrides stiratus Little green heron
69 Egretta intermedia Smaller egret
70 Anas quequdula Bluewinged teal
71 Circus aeruginosus Marsh harrier
72 Falco tinnunculus European kestrel
73 Lonchura malacca Blackheaded muniya
74 Chardarius dubius European little ringed plover
75 Tringa glareorla Spotted sandpiper
76 Ceryle rudis Indian pied kingfisher
77 Hirundo daurica erythropigea Indian redrumped swaloow
78 Arocephalus stentorius Indian great reed warbler
79 Anthus campus Tawny pippit
80 Motacilla flava Greyheaded yellow wagtail
81 Motacilla alba Grey wagtail
82 Egreta gularis Indian reef heron
83 Nycticorax nycticorax Night heron
84 Tadorna ferruginea Brahminy duck
85 Anas crecca Common teal
86 Aquila cranga Greater spotted eagle
87 Pluvialis squatarola Grey plover
88 Pluvialis dominica Golden plover
90 Charadrius leschenaultii Large sandplover
91 Charadrius alexandrianus Kentish plover
92 Charadrius mongolus Pamir's lesser sand plover
93 Numenius phaeopus Whimbrel
94 Numenius arquata Eastern curlew
95 Tringa totanus Eastern redshank
96 Tringa stagnatalis Marsh sandpiper
97 Tringa nebularia Greenshank
98 Calidris minima Little stint
99 Calidris testacea Curlew sandpiper
100 Recurvirostrata avocetta Avocet
101 Glaroeola lactea Small Indian pratincole
102 Larus brunnicephalus Brownheaded gull
103 Larus ridibundus Blackheaded gull
104 Chlidonias hybridus Indian whiskered tern
105 Halcyon pileata Black-capped kingfisher
106 Sturnus roseus Rosy pastor
107 Anhus novaeseelandiae rufulus Indian paddyfied pippit
108 Motacilla alba Indian white wagtail

ANNEXURE -2 : Details of data collected on bivalves and bivalve collectors

Table 1: Village-wise estimated number of bivalve collecting (BC) households (HH) and number of individuals involved in bivalve harvesting

Village No. of  HH** BC HH % of BC HH BC men BC women Total BC persons
Hiregutti 596 1 0.17 1   1
Bargigazani 14 5 35.71 5   5
Aigalkurve 120 5 4.17 2 6 8
Bargi 359 7 1.95 7 4 11
Paduvani 331 13 3.93 3 11 14
Balale 213* 10 4.69 14   14
Betkuli 316 22 6.96 25   25
Lukkeri 280 32 11.43   34 34
Kodkani 407 29 7.13 25 10 35
Hegde 1311 31 2.36 29 19 48
Kagal 711 33 4.64 44 9 53
Madangeri 279 20 7.17 56   56
Morba 180 34 18.89 81 10 91
Toregazani 38 38 100 69 28 97
Mirjan 630 89 14.13 85 94 179
Torke 261 72 27.59 158 26 184
Gokarn 2,532 98 3.87 205 22 227
Divgi 524 323 61.64 237 203 440
Aghanashini 579 340 58.72 692 133 825
Total 9,681 1,202 12.42 1,738 609 2,347
**http://zpkarwar.kar.nic.in/CensusKumtaVWP.htm
*http://zpkarwar.kar.nic.in/CensusAnkolaVWP.htm

Table 2: Village and season-wise average quantity (Kg. wet weight with shells) of bivalves harvested

Village Jun-Oct % of total harvest Nov-May % of total harvest
Hiregutti 105.00 0.09 105.00 0.07
Aigalkurve 300.00 0.25 300.00 0.20
Bargigazani 337.50 0.28 337.50 0.22
Bargi 412.50 0.34 412.50 0.27
Balale 420.00 0.35 420.00 0.28
Lukkeri 431.25 0.36 637.50 0.42
Paduvani 489.00 0.41 588.00 0.39
Betkuli 708.75 0.59 843.75 0.56
Hegde 851.25 0.71 2,062.50 1.37
Kodkani 1,275.00 1.06 2,175.00 1.45
Madangeri 1,680.00 1.40 1,680.00 1.12
Morba 2,497.50 2.08 3,060.00 2.04
Toregazani 2,551.50 2.13 6,014.25 4.01
Kagal 4,890.00 4.08 4,230.00 2.82
Torke 5,782.50 4.82 7,188.00 4.79
Mirjan 5,940.00 4.96 7,320.00 4.88
Gokarn 9,945.63 8.30 11,922.00 7.95
Divgi 23,565.00 19.66 30,465.00 20.31
Aghanashini 57,683.20 48.12 70,270.96 46.84
Total 119,865.58 150,031.96

Table 3: Village and season-wise average quantity of bivalves harvested (in kg. wet weight with shells) by men

Village QHD: Jun-Oct BCD in Jun - Oct Total harvest (kg) - Jun-Oct QHD: Nov-May BCD in Nov - May Total harvest (kg) - Nov-May
Hiregutti 105 44 4,620 105 154 16,170
Bargigazani 338 32 10,800 338 64 21,600
Bargi 263 26 6,825 263 96 25,200
Aigalkurve 165 13 2,145 165 182 30,030
Paduvani 225 100 22,500 225 140 31,500
Balale 420 9 3,780 420 108 45,360
Betkuli 709 9 6,379 844 85 71,719
Hegde 638 13 8,288 1,849 120 221,850
Morba 2,475 8 19,800 3,038 78 236,925
Kodkani 1,125 10 11,250 1,875 132 247,500
Madangeri 1,680 96 161,280 1,680 168 282,240
Kagal 4,620 18 83,160 3,960 80 316,800
Toregazani 2,498 48 119,880 5,951 96 571,320
Mirjan 3,960 40 158,400 4,500 138 621,000
Torke 5,760 45 259,200 7,110 102 725,220
Gokarn 9,430 33 311,190 11,378 78 887,445
Divgi 15,960 10 159,600 21,330 90 1,919,700
Aghanashini 56,689 71 4,024,951 67,278 117 7,871,580
Total 107,058 5,374,047 132,307 14,143,159
BCD – Bivalve collecting days; QHD – Quantity harvested per day

Table 4: Village and season-wise average quantity of bivalves harvested (in kg. wet weight with shells) by women

Village QHD: Jun-Oct BCD in Jun - Oct Total harvest (kg) - Jun-Oct QHD: Nov-May BCD in Nov - May Total harvest (kg) - Nov-May
Morba 23 34 765 23 119 2,678
Toregazani 54 30 1,620 63 96 6,048
Torke 23 51 1,148 78 102 7,956
Aigalkurve 135 10 1,350 135 133 17,955
Bargi 150 36 5,400 150 126 18,900
Kagal 270 7 1,890 270 98 26,460
Paduvani 264 10 2,640 363 90 32,670
Hegde 214 12 2,565 214 168 35,910
Kodkani 150 10 1,500 300 126 37,800
Gokarn 516 75 38,672 545 105 57,173
Lukkeri 431 10 4,313 638 102 65,025
Aghanashini 994 49 48,694 2,993 114 341,145
Mirjan 1,980 48 95,040 2,820 161 454,020
Divgi 7,605 11 83,655 9,135 120 1,096,200
Total 12,807 289,251 17,725 2,199,939
BCD – Bivalve collecting days; QHD – Quantity harvested per day

Table 5: Village, season and gender-wise income per year from bivalve collection

Village Men Women Total (Rs.)
June - Oct Nov - May June - Oct Nov - May
Aghanashini 14,247,842 17,979,543 158,992 704,600 33,090,977
Divgi 568,830 4,428,772 291,182 2,378,217 7,667,001
Mirjan 563,418 1,422,253 328,839 967,109 3,281,619
Gokarn 969,601 1,836,715 135,472 130,651 3,072,439
Torke 795,644 1,427,533 62,813 285,116 2,571,106
Toregazani 431,482 1,333,506 86,293 201,571 2,052,852
Madangeri 588,305 672,031 1,260,336
Kagal 289,145 719,192 6,867 62,622 1,077,826
Kodkani 41,044 589,468 5,036 79,019 714,567
Hegde 29,770 515,903 9,405 86,184 641,262
Morba 60,376 425,015 36,535 77,000 598,926
Paduvani 75,219 65,406 9,579 77,161 227,365
Betkuli 21,459 150,423 171,882
Aigalkurve 7,714 69,957 4,950 43,092 125,713
Balale 13,589 105,607 119,196
Lukkeri 11,397 89,487 100,884
Bargi 14,748 22,534 19,365 43,839 100,486
Bargigazani 38,767 50,173 88,940
Hiregutti 16,848 38,485 55,333
Total 18,773,801 31,852,516 1,166,725 5,225,668 57,018,710
Value which is in bold is the median value

Table 6: Village-wise income (Rs.) per year from shell sale

Village BHH SHH No. of basket (Shells) sales / family Rs.  / basket Income (Rs.) / family Total (Rs.) / village
Hiregutti 1 1 25 10 250 250
Aigalkurve 5 3 28 10 280 840
Kodkani 29 20 11 11 121 2,420
Balale 10 10 28 11 303 3,025
Paduvani 13 7 35 13 438 3,063
Hegde 31 19 16 11 176 3,344
Bargigazani 5 5 50 15 750 3,750
Madangeri 20 20 40 10 400 8,000
Mirjan 89 36 23 11 256 9,207
Torke 72 18 75 9 638 11,475
Gokarn 98 33 41 12 488 16,088
Toregazani 38 19 148 11 1,623 30,828
Kagal 33 26 118 12 1,416 36,816
Morba 34 26 143 12 1,710 44,460
Divgi 323 226 35 14 490 110,740
Aghanashini 340 139 118 12 1,416 196,824
Total 1,141 609 10,752 481,129
BHH – Bivalve collecting households; SHH – Shell selling households

Table 7: Village-wise income (Rs.) per year from dried meat sale

Village BHH DHH kg sales / family Rs. / kg Expense (Rs.) Income (Rs.) / family Total (Rs.) / village
Bargigazani 5 5 2 200 300 1,500
Hiregutti 1 1 18 150 2,625 2,625
Paduvani 13 3 9 250 110 2,140 6,420
Torke 72 13 4 160 20 620 8,060
Aigalkurve 5 3 20 150 135 2,865 8,595
Kagal 33 13 6 175 200 894 11,619
Morba 34 17 8 166 88 1,159 19,709
Balale 10 5 40 100 25 3,975 19,875
Madangeri 20 20 8 175 150 1,163 23,250
Divgi 323 129 2 120 13 183 23,543
Toregazani 38 29 17 150 147 2,353 68,247
Aghanashini 340 170 8 127 175 834 141,696
Total 894 408 19,110 335,138
BHH – Bivalve collecting households; SHH – Shell selling households

 

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