ENVIS Technical Report: 90,  April 2015
1Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, 2Centre for Sustainable Technologies (astra)
3 Centre for infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning [CiSTUP], Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, 560 012, India
Web: http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy E Mail: cestvr@ces.iisc.ernet.in; ganesh@ces.iisc.ernet.in Tel: 91-080-22933099, 2293 3503 extn 101, 107, 114
4Adamya Chetana, Annapoorna - Bangalore, Community Hall, Kempegowda Nagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560019 Tel: 080 2662 0404, E Mail: tejaswini.acf@gmail.com
5 R K Mission, Shivanahalli, Anekal, Bangalore, E Mail: vishnumayananda@gmail.com

*Corresponding author: cestvr@ces.iisc.ernet.in


Tree planting

Avenue Trees (Saalu Mara)


Common Name

Preferred location


Pongamia pinnata

(Honge Mara)

Open land and road side

Gives shade and biodiesel production

Artocarpus heterophyllus


Near homes

Fruits bearing evergreen tree

Mangifera indica

Mango trees

Near homes

Fruits bearing evergreen tree

Syzigium cumini


Open land and road side

Fruits bearing evergreen tree

Azadirachta indica


Open land and road side

Medicinal value and act as dust barrier

Ficus bengalensis


Common places or near temple

Give fruits throughout year and Has religious importance

Ficus religiosa

Sacred Fig, Peepal tree

Common places or near temple

Has religious importance

Michelia champaca


Open land, Common places and road side

Gives shade and flower

Ficus racemosa


Open land and road side

Fruits throughout the year

Bombax malabaricum

Silk Cotton

Open land and road side

Cotton can be extracted and used

Tamarindus indica


Open land and road side

Fruits have high market value

Prosopis cineraria

Banni Tree

Open land and for fencing fields

Religious importance and biomass

Murraya koenigii

Curry leaf tree

Near homes

Medicinal value and used for cooking

Maintenance cost:

  1. Each sapling need 2ft X 2ft width, 2ft depth pit.
  2. Minimum distance between 2 saplings is 15 to 20 feet.
  3. Digging pits, providing manure, planting and closing the pit costs: Rs. 200 per plant
  4. Tree guard using natural material like bamboo and thorns costs: Rs. 100 per plant; Using metal tree guard for 5 feet costs: Rs. 1,000 per plants.
  5. Maintenance for 3 years costs Rs. 400 per plant.
  6. Regular watering the sapling during first year
  7. Watering once in 2-3 days in the 2nd and 3rd year


Rs 200-400 per sapling

Digging and planting

Rs 200 per sapling

Tree guard

Rs 100 per tree

Number of avenue trees

40-50 trees per km per side

Maintenance cost (watering, labour, etc.)

Rs. 150 per sapling during the first year
Rs. 100 per sapling during the second year

Figure 1: Major road network

Energy Plantation


Common Name


Pongamia pinnata

Honge Mara

Biodiesel production

Jatropha curcas


Biodiesel production

Leucaena leucocephala


Higher biomass yield and fixes nitrogen

Vachellia nilotica

Acacia nilotica, gum arabic tree

Higher biomass yield and used as forage

Fodder Plantation

Leucaena leucocephala


Legume provides high-protein cattle fodder

Acrocarpus fraxinifolius

Belangi, Hantige

The foliage is used as fodder and the flowers are a source of nectar for honey bees

Pennisetum purpureum

Napier grass or Elephant grass

Higher productivity and generally grown in all region.

Dichanthium annulatum

Karad grass

It is a perineal grass and can be used for field grazing. Cattle find it palatable.

Macrotyloma uniflorum

Horse gram

Seeds of horse gram are generally utilised as cattle feed. It also famous for its medicinal properties.

Cenchrus ciliaris

Anjan grass

It’s a perineal grass which also reduces soil erosion.

Eco Sanitation

Design Details


No. of users


Average volume of desiccated material

0.25 litres / person / day

Toilet size (floor area)

1.5 m width x 1.2 m length

Soak pit

2.25 m x 2.25 m x 2.25 m size

Soak pit life

5 years


0.90 m x 2.1 m


1–2" thick ferro-cement slab or AC/GI sheets

Structure (permanent)

Brick wall 115 mm thick


Rs. 10,000 to 20,000

Cost Estimation
The cost of a household eco-friendly toilet depends on factors like quality and type of material used, number of chambers opted (one or two), thickness of walls, finishing of the toilet unit, urine diverting pan opted and other amenities such as doors and ventilators. The cost of a household toilets built expected to range between Rs 10,000 to Rs 20,000 given the current market price of the materials and labour across India.

Brick Walll

Waste wood/Bamboo

Coconut thatch

 Community Biogas plant

Design details



100 Kg of kitchen waste/cow dung/organic matter per day

Area required

50 m2

System equipment

Main Digester, Pre-Digester, Gas Holder, Intermediate chambers, Slurry Tank, Gas flow pipe line, Moisture trap systems, Slurry pump, crusher, Air Compressor, Bio-Gas Burner

Biogas generation

Generation of biogas per day

6 m3

LPG Equivalent of biogas

2.4 Kg/day

Savings through LPG per day (@Rs 63/Kg)

151 Rs/day

Manure production per day

10 Kg

Commissioning organisation

NIE-CREST, NIE, Mysore - 570008, Karnataka, India, Ph:0821-4004914 Technology: BARC, Mumbai

Community Solar Water Heater




No. of water heating and distributing units

Minimum one unit for 20 homes with two outlets


Water distribution

15 litres per person per day

Charge of 1Rs per bucket (of 12 litters) would generate the revenue

Cost of water

INR 3 for first 15 lt.
INR 2 for every extra 5 lt.


Human resource requirement

2 persons/unit

In every village, 2 persons to take care of fee collection once in a week and maintain the register

Operating time

8.00 to 10.00 in the morning


Fee collection

Through swipe cards and money transfer once in a week



1000 litres


Collector area

12 m2

Total area is about 20 m2 and the tank should be placed at least 4 to 5 feet above ground



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