Philautus cf luteolus

Polypedates leucomystax

Sphaerotheca dobsonii

Sylvirana temporalis

Bufo melanostictus


Bufo stomaticus

Clinotarsus curtipes


Hoplobatrachus crassus

Hoplobatrachus tigerinus


Indirana semipalmata

Kaloula pulchra

Microhyla ornata

Minervarya sahyadris

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis

Fejervarya sahyadrensis

Hydrophylax malabaricus

Micrixalus sp

Indirana beddomii

Nyctibatrachus cf aliciae

Polypedates leucomystax

Sphaerotheca dobsonii

Sylvirana temporalis

Nyctibatrachus cf petraeus

Philautus cf leucorhinus


Philautus cf ponmudi

Philautus tuberohumerus

Polypedates leucomystax

Ramanella montana

Rhacophorus malabaricus

Sphaerotheca braviceps

Sphaerotheca rufescens

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis

Fejervarya sahyadrensis

Hydrophylax malabaricus

Micrixalus sp

Indirana beddomii

Polypedates leucomystax

The voluminous and exhaustive paper of Frost et al (2006) entitled The Amphibian Tree of Life has certainly changed or at least has opened up a healthy debate in the amphibian phylogeny. The species names and list that exclusively deals with current scenario in the Western Ghats are given below based on Frost et al., (2006). According to this revised list, there are 133 species of amphibians, belonging 27 genera, 11 families, and two orders.

Amphibia Gray, 1825
  Gymnophiona Müller, 1832
    Ichthyophiidae Taylor, 1968
      Ichthyophis Fitzinger, 1826
      Uraeotyphlus Peters, 1880 1879
    Caeciliidae Rafinesque, 1814
      Gegeneophis Peters, 1880
      Indotyphlus Taylor, 1960
  Anura Fischer von Waldheim, 1831
    Sooglossidae Noble, 1931
      Nasikabatrachus Biju and Bossuyt, 2003
    Bufonidae Gray 1825
      Ansonia Stoliczka, 1870
      Bufo Laurenti, 1768
      Pedostibes Günther, 1876 1875
    Microhylidae Günther, 1858 (1843)
      Ramanella Rao and Ramanna, 1925
      Uperodon Duméril and Bibron, 1841
   
 

Melanobatrachinae Noble, 1931

      Melanobatrachus Beddome, 1878
   
 

Microhylinae Günther, 1858 (1843)

      Kaloula Gray, 1831
      Microhyla Tschudi, 1838
    Micrixalidae Dubois, Ohler and Biju, 2001
      Micrixalus Boulenger, 1888
    Petropedetidae Noble, 1931
      Indirana Laurent, 1986
    Dicroglossidae Anderson, 1871
   
 

Dicroglossinae Anderson, 1871

      Euphlyctis Fitzinger, 1843
      Fejervarya Bolkay, 1915
      Hoplobatrachus Peters, 1863
      Minervarya Dubois, Ohler and Biju, 2001
      Sphaerotheca Günther, 1859 1858
    Rhacophoridae Hoffman, 1932 (1858)
   
 

Rhacophorinae Hoffman, 1932 (1858)

      Philautus Gistel, 1848
      Polypedates Tschudi, 1838
      Rhacophorus Kuhl and Hasselt , 1822
    Nyctibatrachidae Blommers-Schlösser, 1993
      Nyctibatrachus Boulenger, 1882
    Ranidae Rafinesque, 1814
      Clinotarsus Mivart, 1869
      Hydrophylax Fitzinger, 1843
      Sylvirana Dubois, 1992

Table 1. Amphibians of the Western Ghats

Order
Family
Subfamily
Genera
Species
Endemic to WG
Gymnophiona Caeciliidae   Gegeneophis
8
8
      Indotyphlus
2
2
  Ichthyophiidae   Ichthyophis
7
7
      Uraeotyphlus
5
5
Anura Sooglossidae   Nasikabatrachus
1
1
  Bufonidae   Ansonia
2
2
      Bufo
10
7
      Pedostibes
1
1
  Microhylidae   Ramanella
6
5
      Uperodon
2
0
    Melanobatrachinae Melanobatrachus
1
1
    Microhylinae Kaloula
1
0
      Microhyla
3
1
  Micrixalidae   Micrixalus
11
11
  Petrapedatidae   Indirana
10
10
  Dicroglossidae Dicroglossinae Euphlyctis
2
0
      Fejervarya
10
8
      Hoplobatrachus
2
0
      Minervarya
1
1
      Sphaerotheca
4
1
  Rhacophoridae Rhacophorinae Philautus
19
19
      Polypedates
4
2
      Rhacophorus
5
5
  Nycitbatrachidae   Nyctibatrachus
12
12
  Ranidae   Clinotarsus
1
1
      Sylvirana
2
2
      Hydrophylax
1
0
2
11
4
27
133
112

Table 2. Checklist of endemic amphibians of Western Ghats with IUCN criteria

Sl. No. Name Authority, Year IUCN criteria1

Order: Gymnophiona

Family: Icthyophiidae

1   Ichthyophis beddomei Peters, 1879 Least concerned
2    Ichthyophis bombayensis Taylor , 1960 Data deficient
3   Ichthyophis longicephalus Pillai, 1986 Data deficient
4    Ichthyophis malabarensis Taylor , 1960 Data deficient
5    Ichthyophis peninsularis Taylor , 1960 Data deficient
6    Ichthyophis subterrestris Taylor , 1960 Data deficient
7    Ichthyophis tricolor Annandale , 1909 Least concerned
8    Uraeotyphlus interruptus Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 Data deficient
9    Uraeotyphlus malabaricus (Beddome, 1870) Data deficient
10    Uraeotyphlus menoni Annandale , 1913 Data deficient
11    Uraeotyphlus narayani Seshachar, 1939 Data deficient
12    Uraeotyphlus oxyurus (Dumeril & Bibron, 1841) Data deficient

Family: Caeciliidae

13   
Gegeneophis carnosus (Beddome, 1870) Data deficient
14   
Gegeneophis danieli Giri, Wilkinson & Gower, 2003 Data deficient
15   
Gegeneophis fulleri (Alcock, 1904) Data deficient
16   
Gegeneophis krishnii Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 Data deficient
17   
Gegeneophis madhavorum Bhatta & Srinivasa, 2004 Data deficient
18   
Gegeneophis nadakarnii Bhatta & Prashanth, 2004 Data deficient
19   
Gegeneophis ramaswamii Taylor , 1964 Least concerned
20   
Gegeneophis seshachari Ravichandran, Gower and Wilkinson, 2003 Data deficient
21   
Indotyphlus battersbyi Taylor , 1960 Data deficient
22   
Indotyphlus maharashtraensis Giri, Gower & Wilkinson, 2004 Data deficient

Order: Anura

Family: Sooglossidae

23    Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis Biju & Bossuyt, 2003 Endangered

Family: Bufonidae

24    Ansonia ornata Günther, 1876 Endangered
25    Ansonia rubigina Pillai & Pattabiraman, 1981 Vulnerable
26    Bufo beddomii Günther, 1875 Endangered
27    Bufo brevirostris Rao, 1937 Data deficient
28    Bufo hololius Günther, 1876 Data deficient
29    Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 Endangered
30    Bufo microtympanum Boulenger, 1882 Vulnerable
31    Bufo parietalis Boulenger, 1882 Near threatened
32    Bufo silentvalleyensis Pillai, 1981 Data deficient
33    Pedostibes tuberculosus Günther, 1875 Endangered

Family: Microhylidae

34    Ramanella anamalaiensis Rao, 1937 Data deficient
35    Ramanella minor Rao, 1937 Data deficient
36    Ramanella montana (Jerdon, 1854) Near threatened
37    Ramanella mormorata Rao, 1937 Endangered
38    Ramanella triangularis (Günther, 1876) Vulnerable

Subfamily: Melanobatrachinae

39    Melanobatrachus indicus Beddome, 1878 Endangered

Subfamily: Microhylinae

40   Microhyla sholigari Dutta & Ray, 2000 Endangered

Family: Micrixalidae

41   Micrixalus elegans (Rao, 1937) Data deficient
42    Micrixalus fuscus (Boulenger, 1882) Near threatened
43    Micrixalus gadgili Pillai & Pattabiraman, 1990 Endangered
44    Micrixalus kottigeharensis (Rao, 1937) Cr. Endangered
45    Micrixalus narainensis (Rao, 1937) Data deficient
46    Micrixalus nudis Pillai, 1978 Vulnerable
47    Micrixalus phyllophilus (Jerdon, 1853) Vulnerable
48    Micrixalus saxicola (Jerdon, 1853) Vulnerable
49    Micrixalus silvaticus (Boulenger, 1882) Data deficient
50    Micrixalus swamianus (Rao, 1937) Data deficient
51    Micrixalus thampii Pillai, 1981 Data deficient

Family: Petropedetidae

52    Indirana beddomii (Günther, 1876) Least concern
53    Indirana brachytarsus (Günther, 1876) Endangered
54    Indirana diplostica (Günther, 1875) Endangered
55    Indirana gundia (Dubois, 1986) Cr. Endangered
56    Indirana leithii (Boulenger, 1888) Vulnerable
57    Indirana leptodactyla (Boulenger, 1882) Endangered
58    Indirana longicrus (Rao, 1937) Data deficient
59    Indirana phrynoderma (Boulenger, 1882) Cr. Endangered
60    Indirana semipalmata (Boulenger, 1882) Least concern
61    Indirana tenuilingua (Rao, 1937) Data deficient

Family: Dicroglossidae

Sub-family: Dicroglossinae

62    Fejervarya brevipalmata (Peters, 1871) Data deficient
63    Fejervarya keralensis (Dubois, 1980) Least concern
64    Fejervarya murthii (Pillai, 1979) Cr. Endangered
65    Fejervarya mysorensis (Rao, 1922) Data deficient
66    Fejervarya nilagirica (Jerdon, 1853) Endangered
67    Fejervarya parambikulamana (Rao, 1937) Data deficient
68    Fejervarya rufescens (Jerdon, 1853) Least concern
69    Fejervarya sauriceps (Rao, 1937) Data deficient
70    Minervarya sahyadris Dubois, Ohler & Biju, 2001 Endangered
71    Sphaerotheca leucorhyncus (Rao, 1937) Data deficient

Family: Rhacophoridae

Sub-family: Rhacophorinae

72    Philautus anili Biju & Bossuyt, 2006  
73    Philautus beddomii (Günther, 1876) Near threatened
74  Philautus bobingeri Biju & Bossuyt, 2005 Data deficient
75    Philautus bombayensis (Annandale, 1919) Vulnerable
76    Philautus chalazodes (Gunther, 1876) Cr. endangered
77    Philautus charius Rao, 1937 Endangered
78    Philautus dubois Biju & Bossuyt, 2006  
79    Philautus flaviventris (Boulenger, 1882) Data deficient
80    Philautus glandulosus (Jerdon, 1853) Vulnerable
81    Philautus graminirupes Biju & Bossuyt, 2005 Data deficient
82    Philautus griet Bossuyt, 2003 Cr. endangered
83    Philautus luteolus Kuramoto & Joshy, 2003 Data deficient
84    Philautus nerostagona Biju & Bossuyt, 2005 Data deficient
85    Philautus ponmudi Biju & Bossuyt, 2005 Data deficient
86  Philautus signatus (Boulenger, 1882) Endangered
87    Philautus tinniens (Jerdon, 1853) Endangered
88    Philautus travancoricus (Boulenger, 1891) Extinct
89    Philautus tuberohumerus Kuramoto & Joshy, 2003 Data deficient
90   Philautus wynaadensis (Jerdon, 1853) Endangered
91    Polypedates pseudocruciger Das & Ravichandran, 1998 Least concerned
92    Polypedates occidentalis Das & Dutta, 2006 Data deficient
93   Rhacophorus calcadensis Ahl, 1927 Endangered
94   Rhacophorus lateralis Boulenger, 1883 Endangered
95   Rhacophorus malabaricus Jerdon, 1870 Least concerned
96    Rhacophorus pseudomalabaricus Vasudevan & Dutta, 2000 Cr. endangered
97   Rhacophorus variabilis (Jerdon, 1854) Data deficient

Family: Nyctibatrachidae

98    Nyctibatrachus aliciae Inger, Shaffer, Koshy & Bakde, 1984 Endangered
99    Nyctibatrachus beddomii (Boulenger, 1882) Endangered
100    Nyctibatrachus deccanensis Dubois, 1984 Vulnerable
101    Nyctibatrachus humayuni Bhaduri & Kripalani, 1955 Vulnerable
102    Nyctibatrachus hussaini Krishnamurthy, Reddy & Gururaja, 2001 Endangered
103    Nyctibatrachus kempholeyensis (Rao, 1937) Data deficient
104    Nyctibatrachus major Boulenger, 1882 Vulnerable
105    Nyctibatrachus minor Inger, Shaffer, Koshy & Bakde, 1984 Endangered
106    Nyctibatrachus petraeus Kunte & Das, 2005 Data deficient
107    Nyctibatrachus sanctipalustris Rao, 1920 Endangered
108    Nyctibatrachus sylvaticus Rao, 1937 Data deficient
109    Nyctibatrachus vasanthi Ravichandran, 1997 Endangered

Family: Ranidae

110    Clinotarsus curtipes (Jerdon, 1854, 1853) Near threatened
111    Sylvirana aurantiaca (Boulenger, 1904) Vulnerable
112    Sylvirana temporalis (Günther, 1864) Near threatened

Note: 1. IUCN criteria http://www.redlist.org/info/categories_criteria2001.html

Table 3. Checklist of non-endemic amphibians to Western Ghats

Sl. No. Name Authority, Year IUCN criteria

Family: Bufonidae

113    Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799 Least concerned
114    Bufo scaber Schneider, 1799 Least concerned
115    Bufo stomaticus Lutken, 1862 Least concerned

Family: Microhylidae

116    Ramanella variegata (Stoliczka, 1872) Least concerned
117    Uperdon globulosus (Günther, 1864) Least concerned
118    Uperdon systoma (Schneider, 1799) Least concerned

Sub-family: Microhylinae

119    Kaloula taprobanica (Parker, 1934) Least concerned
120    Microhyla ornata (Dumeril & Bibron, 1841) Least concerned
121    Microhyla rubra Jerdon, 1854 Least concerned

Family: Dicroglossidae

Sub-family: Dicroglossinae

122    Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider, 1799) Least concerned
123    Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834) Least concerned
124    Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829) Least concerned
125   Fejervarya syhadrensis (Annandale, 1919) Least concerned
126    Hoplobatrachus crassus (Jerdon, 1853) Least concerned
127    Hoplobatrachus tigerinus Daudin, 1803 Least concerned
128    Sphaerotheca breviceps (Schneider, 1799) Least concerned
129    Sphaerotheca dobsonii (Boulenger, 1882) Least concerned
130    Sphaerotheca rolandae (Dubois, 1983) Least concerned

Family: Rhacophoridae

Sub-family: Rhacophorinae

131    Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1829) Least concerned
132    Polypedates maculates (Gray, 1834) Least concerned

Family: Ranidae

133    Hydrophylax malabaricus Tschudi, 1838 Least concerned

 

Table 4. Species earlier present in the Western Ghats , now in Sri Lanka

134    Philautus leucorhinus Extinct
135    Philautus variabilis Extinct
136    Philautus femoralis Endangered
137    Philautus temporalis Extinct
138    Philautus adspersus Extinct
139    Philautus nasutus Extinct

Table 4. Species that lost identity after 2001.

140    Philautus pulcherrimus
141    Philautus crnri
142    Philautus hassanensis
143    Philautus melanensis
144    Philautus nobeli
145    Philautus parkeri
146    Philautus punctatus

 

 

Reference:

• Frost DR, Grant T, Faivovich J, Bain RH, Haas A, Haddad CFB, De Sá RO, Channing A, Wilkinson M, Donnellan SC, Raxworthy CJ, Moler P, Drewes RC, Nussbaum RA, Lynch JD, Green DM, Wheeler WC. 2006.

• The Amphibian Tree of Life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 370pp. www.calacademy.org/research/Herpetology/pdfs/amphibian_tree .pdf

• Gururaja K V. 2004. Sahyadri Mandooka - Amphibians of Western Ghats http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/biodiversity/sahyadri_enews/newsletter/issue6/index.htm

• Bossuyt F, Dubois A (2001) A review of the frog genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae, Rhacophorinae). Zeylanica 6:1-112

• Manamendra-Arachchi K, Pethiyagoda R (2005) The Sri Lankan shrub-frogs of the genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Ranidae: Rhacophorinae), with description of 27 new species. Raff Bull Zool Suppl12:163- 303

 
Photos & Information Compiled By:

Dr. K V Gururaja
gururaj@ces.iisc.ernet.in