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2. Environmental impacts and protective measures
2.1 Soil, relief, geology
2.2 Water balance
2.3 Climate, air
2.4 Flora and fauna, eco-systems
2.6 Socio-cultural and socio-economic impacts and their effects on the environment
3. Notes on the analysis and assessment of environmental impacts
4. Interaction with other sectors
5. Summary assessment of environmental relevance
The aim of this brief is to highlight possible environmental impacts arising from the construction and further development of facilities for tourism and associated activities and to describe measures to avoid or minimise damage to the environment. Particular attention is given to leisure and recreational tourism on the coast and inland as well as sight-seeing tourism.
Facilities for tourism include all buildings, open-air installations and infrastructural establishments used to accommodate and look after tourists and service staff e.g. hotels, bungalows, club facilities, holiday villages, restaurants, souvenir shops etc. as well as supply and disposal networks for electricity, water, sewage, rubbish etc. In addition there are special facilities for activities such as swimming pools, golf courses, mini-golf areas and tennis courts, harbours and marinas and even airfields etc. Attention must also be paid to activities which are not tied to particular facilities, such as sea bathing, diving, wind-surfing etc., hiking, hill climbing, riding as well as sight-seeing tours to visit places of cultural interest and areas of outstanding natural beauty, national parks etc.
In recent years tourism has developed dramatically. The effect of this has been to trigger a variety of socio-economic, cultural and ecological changes. In many instances in the past too little consideration has been given to these factors, with a consequent influence on autochthonous population groups and damage to many virgin landscapes.
Exploitation of natural resources has had certain alarming adverse effects on the natural environment (e.g. lowering of water tables, threat to coral reefs etc.). On the other hand tourism contributes to an improvement in foreign exchange earnings, thereby facilitating the imposition of protective measures for areas of outstanding natural beauty to ensure their long-term conservation. It is therefore all the more important to minimise the negative environmental impacts of tourism projects in order to turn tourism into a generally positive development factor. This objective has also given rise to the expressions "gentle tourism" and "sensitive tourism". There is no contradiction between respect for natural habitats and the culture and lifestyle of the local population in tourist areas and high recreational value and benefits for all those involved in tourism. In this context it has to be stressed that the problems which arise are not solely those caused by foreign tourists but can equally well be provoked by domestic tourists.
2. Environmental impacts and protective measures
The list below provides a summary of the main environmental impacts which may result from tourism projects.
- Engineering works for the purpose of developing facilities and the necessary infrastructure (drainage, infills, excavation, embankment work etc).
- Coastal erosion including beach erosion, destruction of coral reefs.
- Water supply (risk that ground water tables will fall).
- Water pollution resulting from untreated wastewater and sewage.
- Waste disposal.
- Power supply.
- Air quality and other climatic effects.
- Impairment of the natural landscape by buildings which are inappropriate in terms of location, size, external colour and style of construction.
- Socio-economic effects eg on regional economic structures, on the local labour market and on the lifestyle of the population affected by tourism projects.
- Conflicts over usage as a result of the displacement of traditional forms of land-use such as agriculture and fishing.
- Size and scale of facilities in relation to existing environmental factors, including any tourism facilities which may already exist (risk of over-exploitation of natural resources eg soil erosion).
In this context it must be stressed that eco-systems such as dunes, mangroves, savannas, animal reserves can be affected in many ways by these problems.
2.1 Soil, Relief, Geology
Land consumption constitutes a direct attack on the soil structure, and can be considerable depending on the size and scale of the facilities. It can also have a negative impact on other land-use demands, e.g. on the part of agriculture, forestry and water management, nature conservation and other forms of land use. In addition the ecological functions of the soil can be restricted with consequent adverse effects on other forms of use, particularly those resulting from the sealing over of areas with buildings, roads and the like.
Coastal erosion represents a serious problem with many additional complications. It can be triggered by construction projects and tourism activities on or near beaches, the removal of natural coastline protection and interference with the balance of materials on beaches.
In addition the danger exists that the protective beach vegetation will be removed and replaced in part by plants inappropriate to that location which provide less protection against soil erosion. Natural processes of sedimentation and the coastal protection provided by coral reefs can be very severely impaired by the removal of sand from river systems or from beaches and by the use of reef limes as building material (cf. 2.4). In order to protect sensitive coastal areas, sufficiently broad buffer zones with vegetation appropriate to that particular location should therefore be maintained or created and kept free from any sort of building. The use of coral limes as building material must be forbidden.
Erosion phenomena also occur in mountainous areas and are caused mainly by deforestation and the destruction of ground cover vegetation which is trampled down and camped on. This whole process is reinforced by the construction of hostels, cabins and paths. In order to avoid dangerous over-exploitation of peak areas, the greatest possible restraint should be shown in the construction of cable car systems and other technical means of transport to the top. The consequence of a reduction in the forest area is that when it rains or the snows melt avalanches occur and river beds silt up. It must also be remembered that in these extreme climatic conditions the vegetation takes a very long time to re-establish itself.
Soil compaction as well as soil erosion can also be provoked by the construction of paths and tracks and inadequate maintenance of them and by activities such as skiing, off-track use of mountain bikes, motor bikes or cars. In national parks inadequate maintenance of the paths and tracks can result in their spreading out ever wider with consequent adverse effects on the protective vegetation ground cover.
Similar consequences occur when tourists deviate from prescribed routes and pathways in order to look at flora and fauna from as close a vantage point as possible. Proposals for the acceptable use of national parks are contained in the guidelines on the tourist development of national parks produced by IUCN (McNeely et al.) These also contain sections on the establishment of accommodation units, roads and the like. Governments and organisers should provide tourists with information on how to behave in an environmentally acceptable manner and should, where applicable, issue guidelines on behaviour.
In addition, government authorities should introduce environmental charges for the use of sensitive eco-systems (e.g. national parks, walking tours) to provide finance for maintenance and repair work.
Pollution from refuse and excrement is yet another factor with adverse impacts on the soil. Apart from increasing its nutrient value a further side-effect can be an accretion of toxic substances.
To avoid this, tour operators and project managers should collect waste separately and recycle it according to its material value. Organic waste can be used as compost. Educating staff and tourists in how to behave in an environmentally acceptable manner is also of great importance.
2.2 Water balance
The water balance is affected by a high degree of water consumption and by pollution which puts water quality at risk.
While water supply is not normally a problem in temperate climates with large amounts of precipitation, it is a major problem in certain tropical and sub-tropical countries, especially on islands, in coastal areas and in semi-arid and arid areas with irregular rainfall.
Seasonal water consumption is particularly critical for tourism, because it rises very rapidly in periods of low rainfall which are preferred by tourists, thereby creating demand peaks. Consumption in a luxury hotel can be anywhere between 350 and 1200 litres per day per guest. This degree of variation is attributable to many factors including, for example, the location, the facilities, the water available, the way water is used and the use of recycled waste water. One can assume a minimum requirement of 250 litres per day per guest for a luxury hotel. The general assumption has to be that water consumption increases the more arid the area is. Whenever new tourism projects are being planned the extent and quality of existing water reserves should be investigated and then compared with the forecast monthly requirement. Account should also be taken of the requirement for staff and the native population, including any foreseeable increase in population.
The feasibility and effectiveness of connection to the public water-supply system must also be established. If wells are sunk thought must be given to the groundwater requirements of neighbours and the agricultural use of land. Connate groundwater supplies must be used sparingly. Consideration should be given as to whether desalination plants could be used for the supply of drinking water, although the high energy requirement and the necessity to remove materials from these plants must not be forgotten.
Water consumption can be minimised by taking the following measures:
Treatment and recycling of wastewater and use of non-potable water for outdoor watering purposes; collection and use of rain water; education of staff and tourists in the sparing use of water; application of modern technology to reduce water consumption (e.g. flush toilets) etc.
The need to protect groundwater supplies must be taken into account when large hotel and bungalow complexes are being planned and constructed. Care should be taken to avoid sealing over large surface areas.
A potentially serious problem is presented by the pollution of rivers, lakes and coastal waters from refuse, oil residues and the introduction of untreated waste water and sewage from tourism complexes. The discharge of organic and inorganic substances results in oxygen depletion and eutrophication, particularly in coastal inlets and lagoons with a low degree of water renewal. Physico-chemical and biological processes may result in the accretion of toxic substances in the sediment, in coral reefs (see also section 2.4) and in coastal fauna.
In order to reduce waste water contamination, detergents with phosphates, cleaning agents with chlorine and other water-polluting materials should not be used. Rainwater should be drained away separately, wastewater from sanitary installations, bathrooms and kitchens being screened mechanically, then subjected to partial or full biological purification treatment, depending on underground conditions and the quantities of waste water and sewage. The process may involve the use of microorganisms or phytographic settling and clarifying tanks. Special care must be taken to maintain these treatment facilities in perfect operating condition. Provided the degree of purification is satisfactory, sewage and waste water treated in this way can be used to sprinkle golf courses as well as parks and other green areas, while the slurry collected can be used as a fertiliser (see also the environmental brief on wastewater disposal).
2.3 Climate, air
The implementation of tourism projects may also impair the micro- and mesoclimate. Buildings as well as parking areas and other consolidated surfaces can give rise to disturbances, depending on the degree of sealing over (material and colouring), by heating up the immediate surroundings, and possibly leading to changes in air turbulence patterns.
Temperatures can be lowered, with a resultant improvement in the micro- and mesoclimate, by means of extensive planting and the use of lattice bricks on grassed areas. The aim in principle must be to seal over the surface area as little as possible.
The spread and position of buildings may interfere with the local wind systems (e.g. onshore and offshore wind system or mountain and valley wind systems), thus skyscrapers and other large buildings erected across the prevailing wind direction may form a barrier preventing or severely reducing air circulation. This is of particular significance in conurbations or where there is high-density development along coastlines or in valley areas.
When air circulation is reduced and combined with a high incidence of traffic, the result can be a concentration of pollutants. For these reasons low-density and low-profile construction should be planned, thus ensuring adequate natural ventilation; natural air paths must be maintained and greenery planted along their trajectory.
The transport of tourists and other tourism activities can have an adverse impact on air quality, particularly where the use of motor vehicles or aircraft is involved, and also as a result of moto-cross events, speedboat races and light aircraft displays. Events of this sort and sight-seeing tours to areas of cultural interest and outstanding natural beauty often involve a large amount of traffic and even traffic jams, resulting in emissions of nitric oxide, carbon dioxide etc. Measures should be taken to counter this by restricting the use of private cars and improvements to the public transport system. The amount of traffic can also be reduced by limiting the numbers of visitors and the days for sight-seeing.
2.4 Flora and fauna, eco-systems
Animal and plant life is affected immediately and directly when natural vegetation is removed or altered because of the construction of hotels, bungalows, sporting facilities and the like.
Depending on the scale and severity of such interference, the construction work may involve the elimination of rare animals and plants or an increase in the degree to which they are at risk, the isolation of natural habitats and the destruction of eco-systems. This can trigger major consequential effects, e.g. erosion, pollution of natural water sources, displacement of animal populations etc.
Inventories should therefore be taken before a project is implemented, with the aim of listing significant biotopes in good time and proposing measures to avoid or at least to neutralise such interference. The assessment is made according to its significance for the protection of species and biotopes and other ecological functions. Biotopes which deserve protection or which are particularly sensitive must not be eliminated or put at risk. Less sensitive locations should be established and put forward as alternatives.
Marine ecosystems are being seriously affected by the major growth in popularity of seaside holidays. Thus in coastal areas reeds, beach vegetation which provides stability and sand dunes are often removed. Lagoons are frequently filled in, thereby drastically reducing mangrove forests, so that hotels can be built and sand can be used as a building material. Damage is also caused by wastewater and sewage outfalls and by oil residues from leisure craft. Mangrove forests in particular have many ecological functions, e.g. a habitat for many different kinds of plants and animals, coastal protection, a transition zone between salt water and fresh water areas, encouragement of natural sedimentation etc.
Similar problems occur along open stretches of coastline not merely because beaches are polluted, but also because corals are put at risk. Excessive nitrogen from organic sewage and waste water can promote the growth of algae to the point of choking corals and other marine organisms, while bacteriological contamination as well as chemical and metal substances poison reef colonies and other marine eco-systems. As corals die off, coastal current patterns can change and beach erosion can increase.
One of the central problems arising as tourist facilities are constructed and operated is the degree to which eco-systems are polluted by waste, sewage and waste water. A precondition for approving tourism projects at the planning stage must therefore be the incorporation of an integral concept for reducing the amount of waste, recycling it and treating it in an environmentally acceptable manner together with the treatment of waste water. Projects must not be implemented if they are likely to produce adverse effects on or even threaten corals and other marine eco-systems.
Possible measures to reduce the amount of waste are:
- the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable products, for example no canned drinks, disposable bottles or packaged foodstuffs and avoidance of plastic packaging whenever possible; instead the use of containers, deposits on bottles etc,
- recycling of organic waste in the composting system of each hotel
- education of tourists in environmentally friendly behaviour
- education of staff.
Corals are also put at risk when swimmers and divers break off pieces of coral for use as souvenirs and aquarium decoration. Corals are known to play a major part in their respective eco-systems.
Drainage work and removal of groundwater can have effects on marsh biotopes. As a result natural areas dry out and conditions in the natural habitat change, with consequences for the species living there.
Plant damage is often caused by mechanical loads such as walking, driving and camping (e.g. trekking expeditions in the Himalayas and other high mountains).
Intensive practise of water sports, including incursions into shallow waters and sea and river banks, can disturb feeding and nesting birds and can displace them. Constant disturbance means that the nesting pattern becomes less dense and the birds have to move to undisturbed areas. Migratory birds which fly into certain areas to rest and feed are also driven away by the presence of people and boats.
Motor sport (e.g. moto-cross) as well as water sport can have a highly adverse impact on fauna. This includes: disturbance of ground nesting birds, destruction of nests, destruction of nesting areas in upright walls and displacement of birds and other types of animal.
Incursions of this sort can be minimised by means of the following measures, attention being paid in every case to the extent to which there can be shared responsibility between the authorities and tour operators:
- denial of access and protected area status for areas of outstanding natural beauty (no-go areas)
- ban on removal of corals and other rare animals and plants
- establishment of fixed transport routes
- restriction of numbers of tourists and excursions
- education of tourists.
National parks are frequently established in order to promote tourism. However, problems may arise if the number of visitors is too high, e.g.:
- major stress and disturbance for the animals (especially for lions and leopards) from too many photo safaris and excessive proximity to the vehicles as well as noise pollution,
- accidents involving animals due to excessive vehicle speeds,
- changes in natural instinctive behaviour because of feeding by tourists and familiarity with them,
- disturbance during breeding periods,
- intimidation of lions, buffalo and other animals from balloon safaris (stress behaviour),
- transmission of disease by people and waste matter,
- decimation of species by fires.
To reduce stresses of this nature the viability of each and every national park must be ascertained and a management plan drawn up on this basis for their exploitation.
The landscape can be impaired directly by the construction of tourism facilities, and indirectly by the attendant construction or enlargement of infrastructure facilities, roads, airports, residential and industrial estates etc. A distinction must be made as to whether the planned location is to be constructed directly adjacent to existing built-up areas or holiday centres or is to be established in separate, largely untouched areas of countryside.
In built-up areas visual blight may result from too great an accumulation of building complexes which do not fit in with the environment either in terms of size or in terms of building material, style and colouring. The consequence is a permanent change in housing and settlement patterns and visual locations which were typical of the region.
To prevent developments of this sort, master plans as well as structure planning and construction plans should be devised so as to check over-development and excessive building. In the absence of appropriate legislation, local building guidelines and urban development concepts should be established whenever possible, or alternatively universally applicable urban planning guidelines laid down. It should also be established whether bans on building in certain areas must be enacted or construction work restricted by the issue of licences. Success can only be achieved by monitoring compliance with planning edicts.
In remote and largely untouched rural areas the countryside can be impaired by individual buildings unless these are integrated into the landscape. The corollary of desirable hillside locations is that the buildings erected can be seen from some distance. The construction of multi-storey buildings and the use of building materials not typical of the locality normally result in blots on the landscape.
This can be prevented by the construction of buildings in typical local style using local materials. Local architects should be involved. For example, a design feature should be that buildings do not exceed the normal height of palm trees on tropical coasts. Intensive use of greenery and surrounding use of typical local plants and trees help to blend new buildings into the landscape. This is also applicable to the design of sporting and leisure facilities.
When choosing a location care should be taken not to remove or impair features which are typical of the landscape and cultural monuments. No building should take place in conservation areas or in other sensitive regions. Tourist facilities in national parks should only be erected at the extremities of the conservation area. Overdevelopment of the countryside as a result of ribbon development should also be prevented.
The proposals outlined above should also be taken into account in the construction of paths, roads, bridges and the like. Deep cuttings, high embankments and the dissection of natural valleys should be avoided.
2.6 Socio-cultural and socio-economic impacts and their effects on the environment
Tourist facilities and leisure activities can have major consequential impacts on socio-cultural and economic conditions and consequently on environmental media. Among the main socio-cultural effects are:
- changes in traditional values and patterns of behaviour of the indigenous population confronted with the standard of living of tourists (demonstrative effect): the results may include resentment and aggression towards tourists.
- change of lifestyle for individual ethnic population groups due to the introduction of a money-based economy.
- marketing of traditional festivals and ceremonies by autochthonous population groups as tourist attractions. This can result in a loss of dignity for the indigenous population with traditional festivities becoming devoid of meaning.
- non-observance and infringement of religious traditions (taboos).
- identification by young people with Western examples which may be associated with a loss of regional identity. This promotes greater consumer orientation and can trigger criminality and violence.
- emergence of alcohol and drug abuse as well as prostitution allied to major health risks in women, children and men (eg AIDS).
Socio-economic structures can change in the immediate vicinity of tourist projects and - depending on the catchment area - can affect a complete region. In some cases this occurs at the planning stage with the construction of access roads, harbours, airports etc. and intensifies at the implementation and operational stages. The major effects are:
- influx of additional population resulting in a geographical concentration in particular areas and (unplanned) additions to conurbations, with an exacerbation of some of the adverse effects on the environment already mentioned.
- influx of traders and job-seekers who not only represent competition with the indigenous population but also increase regional disparities and trigger further movements of population.
- removal of people from protected areas resulting in compulsory resettlement and the displacement of the indigenous population from its hunting areas.
- restricted exercise of traditional fishing practices following removal from private beaches and priority being given to use of the beaches for tourist purposes.
- loss of valuable rural areas for special agricultural crops (fruit, vegetables) as a result of the construction of hotel complexes, sporting facilities and accommodation for employees as well as major falls in the water table and saline contamination. This results in an exodus from agricultural professions and a move into the service sector. In addition this restricts supplies of appropriate products to the indigenous population and to tourists.
- scarcity of land, made even worse by tourism with land prices being driven up further.
- increase in the cost of living generally, e.g. for basic foodstuffs as a result of demand from tourists.
- increased imports of fuels to meet the power supply demands caused by tourists e.g. including the requirement for air conditioning systems. Increase in general energy costs as a result.
- excessive calls on existing health services.
These socio-cultural and socio-economic impacts cannot really be avoided, but must be minimised as far as possible. The following measures necessitating cooperation between project managers and the authorities can make a partial contribution towards these aims:
- participation by the affected population in the planning process and its implementation;
- compensatory measures provided by project managers;
- ways of life and traditions of the indigenous population being taken into consideration;
- training and further education of staff etc.;
- education of tourists.
In addition regulations can be issued such as:
- measures/laws to limit and control the misuse of alcohol and drugs, prostitution and corruption;
- economic regeneration of other areas in order to reduce additional migration;
- infrastructural measures deriving from national assistance programmes and development aid programmes.
Adverse environmental impacts derive both from tourist projects themselves as well as from the socio-economic restructuring which they trigger. The former are linked among other things to the requisite infrastructural development and the provision of mains facilities. For example, the transport of tourists often requires the construction of roads, airports and marinas, using up large areas of land.
Demand for foodstuffs from tourists can lead to over-fishing in coastal regions (decrease in fish population, impairment of ecological balance) and environmentally unacceptable methods of catching fish, e.g. use of dynamite). In Alpine regions this can lead to over-grazing and thence to soil erosion.
Major influxes of population can result in serious problems for supply and disposal services and increase the strain on all environmental media. It may be necessary to construct dams and power stations for energy production, resulting in further interference with the natural environment.
Unauthorised building by the migrant population attracted to national parks and other tourist areas should not be overlooked, as this can result in over-development of the countryside and, in extreme cases, in the ruination of once attractive landscapes.
3. Notes on the analysis and assessment of environmental impacts
When tourist facilities are established, care must be taken to ensure that they are compatible with national, regional and communal planning guidelines. For this purpose master plans, national development programmes and regional structure plans and programmes, as well as area plans and building development plans, must all be taken into account.
Assessment of potentially adverse effects on the environment can be undertaken on the basis of qualitative and quantitative criteria.
Quantitative methods should be applied to those environmental areas for which measurable data are available (e.g. water, air). In Germany, for example, the basis for this is provided by the maximum/minimum and guideline figures enshrined in many different laws, for example the Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetz [Federal Immission Control Act] together with the Technische Anleitung (TA) Luft und Lärm [Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control and Noise Abatement], the Wasserhaushalts- und Abfallbeseitigungsgesetz [the Federal Water Act and Waste Avoidance and Waste Management Act], the Abwasserabgabenverordnung [Wastewater Charges Ordinance] etc. Complementing these are the German DIN standards and VDI regulations of the Association of German Engineers. There are similar environmental laws and programmes in many countries, although they differ in terms of their content and other areas of emphasis. These should be drawn on for purposes of analysis and assessment. Account must also be taken of international agreements and treaties.
If there are no national legally-binding points of reference, recommended values stipulated by industrial countries, the EC and WHO, are often applied. Whereas the EC has compiled recommended values and guiding principles on soil, water and air, emphasis in the WHO has been on clean air and the quality of drinking water. All these should be applied taking due account of traditional standards of behaviour and local circumstances, as well as the availability of monitoring mechanisms.
There are no generally recognised quantitative standards for the environmental sectors of the animal and plant kingdoms and for landscapes, which means that assessments should be conducted on the basis of qualitative predictions. There are a number of methodical models for this purpose which have to be correspondingly adapted according to the particular natural features of the area.
Assessment criteria which are generally used for biotopes include for example species and structural diversity, incidence of rare or threatened species of animals and plants, rarity, natural characteristics and irreplaceability of habitats, representative quality etc. For the visual landscape the following factors are significant in assessment terms: individual elements and complexes which characterise the visual landscape, multiple structured areas, forms of natural relief, culturally historic forms of construction, forms of settlement and land usage, unspoiled nature and uniqueness of rural landscapes.
The environmental impacts triggered by tourist projects can be assessed generally and presented on the basis of ecological risk analysis. This means that the areas affected are assessed according to qualitative criteria as to their suitability, sensitivity and previous exposure to risks, the consequential effects being calculated on the basis of other landscape potential factors, as well as their geographical areas of impact. Planned risk alleviation measures are then taken into account in order to assess the residual risk.
When assessing environmental impacts it may be helpful to make a comparison with existing tourist facilities. This helps identify relevant factors which trigger adverse impacts on the environment as well as their degree of effectiveness.
Measures to avoid and alleviate planned incursions must also be worked out. These include: design and positioning of buildings in harmony with the landscape, use of traditional building styles, minimal usage of land and sealing-over of natural surfaces, measures to provide mains services and disposal of waste, provision of greenery around buildings, sympathetic landscaping etc. In addition valuable habitats must be maintained and looked after with their natural features. Unavoidable adverse impacts should be compensated to the extent that the natural environment is not permanently impaired.
Analysis and assessment of environmental impacts as defined in this environmental brief must also take place for limited/smaller tourism projects; the comprehensive nature and depth of scrutiny must be varied from case to case according to the relevance of the environmental impacts.
4. Interaction with other sectors
The construction of tourism facilities and tourist activities which then follow can have extensive effects on all aspects of the infrastructure.
Tourism projects can act as economic factors from as early as the planning and construction stage, and even more so once they are operational, exerting a considerable influence on the development of the surrounding area, industry, trade and commerce, agriculture and the creation of new housing developments. This means that there may be areas of overlap and even conflicts with the following sectors:
There is also an indirect connection with "Public Facilities".
The development of tourism is also linked to site access and the provision of transport routes. Depending on their size and scale, tourism projects can provide the impetus for the construction or enlargement of roads, airports and other transport facilities. There are overlapping links with the environmental briefs:
Transport and Traffic Planning, Road Building and Maintenance, Road Traffic, Railways and Railway Operations, Airports, Inland Ports, Shipping on Inland Waterways, Ports and Harbours and Shipping.
Potential for conflict arises firstly from additional atmospheric pollution and noise pollution and secondly from the various different usage requirements on the part of agriculture and forestry, water supply management, nature conservation and other forms of land usage.
Finally there are close interactions between the development of an area for tourists and the provision of mains services and waste disposal for the immediate environment. The major energy demand can influence the overall consumption of energy in an entire region or even an entire country. This means that the energy planning brief should be taken into account.
Similar considerations apply to water supply, which should be secured at the outset by means of overall water framework planning:
Specific implementation depends on each location and involves either urban water supply or rural water supply.
In this context there may also be interaction with the sectors of rural and large-scale hydraulic engineering.
The collection, treatment and removal of wastewater and waste materials should either be the responsibility of the tourism project in question or should be integrated in the local waste disposal plan. Relevant references are to be found in the following environmental briefs:
- Wastewater Disposal and
- Solid Waste Disposal.
If tourist facilities are constructed in pedologically or geologically sensitive areas of landscape there may possibly be overlaps with the erosion control sector.
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