3. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts

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In countries affected by the problems described above, it is vital to be able to identify hazardous wastes at the place of generation and to have knowledge of the associated hazard potential, in order to control these hazards effectively within the framework of waste management planning and to put the planning into practice. Therefore a binding schedule of waste types must be compiled in preparation for the further stages of planning and implementation of waste management measures. Demarcation criteria and definition questions must be formulated for maximum harmonisation with existing international regulations, so as to control transboundary movements of waste materials within the meaning of the Basel Convention (see Section 2. and Annex 1) as far as possible from this side of the border.


4. Interaction with other sectors

On the basis of information concerning the quantity, composition, hazardous nature etc. of the waste types, the actual waste management plan is drawn up with the following objectives:

  1. Regular collection (examining possibilities for separate collection) and removal of materials,
  2. Safe and controlled transport of materials from the generation point to the treatment or disposal plant,
  3. Availability of environmentally acceptable treatment/disposal plants appropriate to the material,
  4. Regulation of administrative powers in the field of licensing and for any necessary monitoring.

This scheme of objectives therefore embraces a very large number of aims and requirements. The following areas are addressed:

- effects on health,
- effects on the environment (questions of environmental compatibility),
- technical reliability, operational safety,
- political acceptance,
- recovery of (marketable) resources,
- economic efficiency,
- conservation and preservation of raw materials .


5. Summary assessment of environmental relevance

The first step in the environment-friendly planning and disposal of special wastes is to identify the waste materials arising at their generation point and to classify these materials on the basis of a schedule of waste types.

Waste management planning is limited by a number of secondary conditions which restrict the scope for action (listed in 2.2). These factors create conflicts in the disposal of special waste.

The most important requirements for (special) waste disposal, with a view to achieving minimal environmental pollution, can be summed up as follows:

1. Minimisation of waste through the use of production processes and imports which generate as little environmental pollution as possible,
2. Identification of waste at the waste production point,
3. Examination of these waste materials with a view to possible reuse and recycling,
4. Collection systems appropriate to the material properties and, where applicable, temporary storage of the materials recovered,
5. Transport of the waste materials to be disposed of or recycled by specially designed and officially approved vehicles; transportation by qualified and reliable drivers; establishment of the appropriate mode of transport and the precise transport routes,
6. Disposal of waste materials after examining the potential for recycling in suitable plants which have been constructed within a regional waste management scheme and have been tested for environmental acceptability. One should consider here:

- maintenance of the state of the art for maximum reduction of the environmental pollution (emissions) associated with the plants, expansions of such plants and the resultant atmospheric immissions;
- emphasis on reuse and recycling of materials;
- heat generation, where the waste materials are suitable for this;
- matching of disposal capacities to the types and quantities of special waste generated;

7. Development of regional markets for recycled products,
8. Planning and implementation of economic measures in the sphere of waste management,
9. Encouragement to develop and implement plans to deal with commercial and industrial waste,
10. Establishment of authorities for effective planning and monitoring of the necessary measures and their actual implementation,
11. Creation of a legal framework for waste management planning and policy.

In assessing hazards, it is first necessary to trace the hazard sources. As described above, specific hazards occur depending on

· the waste materials and their properties,
· the transport routes and modes of transport chosen against the background of the (traffic) situation within the disposal area,
· the disposal plants available and their environmental protection facilities,
· the application of regulations under health and safety law.

Besides these different types of objective hazards, other sources of hazard must be borne in mind when dealing with these materials. That is to say, the factors of

· human error,
· technical faults,
· extraneous factors (earthquake, flood etc.)

must be included in the hazard model (preparation of incident plans with contingency measures, worst-case scenarios etc.).

Since there are so many aspects to take into account, putting all these measures into practice is no easy matter. Compatible strategy elements must be therefore planned and implemented on a long-term horizon. As waste is produced as an end product of economic processes, a waste management policy will in turn have many different effects on these economic processes. This is all the more true of special waste because of its immediate proximity to the production area. Annex 9 summarises the main elements of this environmental field.


6. References

Laws and conventions:

Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift über Anforderungen zum Schutz des Grund-wassers bei der Lagerung und Ablagerung von Abfällen dated January 31, 1990 (GMBl. (joint ministerial circular), p. 74).

Zweite allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift zum Abfallgesetz (TA-Abfall), Teil 1: Technische Anleitung zur Lagerung, chemisch/physikalischen und biolo-gischen Behandlung und Verbrennung von besonders überwachungsbe-dürftigen Abfällen dated December 17, 1990 (GMBl.(joint ministerial circular) p. 866, ber. GMBl. 1991 p. 136, Neufassung GMBl. 1991 p. 138).

Gesetz zur Vermeidung und Entsorgung von Abfällen (Abfallgesetz - AbfG) dated August 27, 1986 (BGBl. (Federal Law Gazette) p. 1410), zuletzt geändert durch Gesetz vom 11. Mai 1990 (BGBl. I (Federal Law Gazette I) p. 870).

Gesetz über die Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung (UVPG) dated February 12, 1990 (BGBl. (Federal Law Gazette) I p. 205) geändert durch Gesetz vom 11. Mai 1990 amended by Law of 11 May 1990 (BGBl. I p. 870).

Council Directive on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment of 27 June 1985 (85/337/EEC - O.J. No. L 175 of 5 July 1985, p. 40).

Council Directive on toxic and dangerous waste of 20 March 1978 (78/319/EEC - O.J. L 84 of 31 March 1978, p. 43).

Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal.

Verordnung zur Bestimmung von Abfällen nach § 2 Abs. 2 des Abfallgesetzes (Abfallbestimmungsverordnung - AbfBestV) dated April 3, 1990 (BGBl. I (Federal Law Gazette) I p. 614).

WHO: Hazardous Waste Management, WHO Interim Document No. 7.

Scientific papers:

Batsstone, R., Smith, J.E., Wilson, D.C. (Eds.): The Safe Disposal of Hazardous Wastes - The Special Needs and Problems of Developing Countries, World Bank Technical Paper Number 93, Vol. I, II, III, Washington D.C., 1989.

Franke, B., Giegrich, J.: Abwägung der Risiken durch Müllverbrennung und Mülldeponierung, in: VDI (Ed.): Handbuch zum VDI-Seminar "Über Abfallströme zu integrierten Abfallwirtschaftskonzepten" on February 18 and 19 1991 in Düsseldorf.

Hessisches Ministerium für Umwelt und Reaktorsicherheit (Ed.): Hessische Abfallwirtschaftskonzeption, Wiesbaden 1988.

Publisher not indicated: Suchliste für Sonderabfälle und Altlasten, in: Arbeitnehmer, H. 12/1989, p. 534 - 544.

Schramek, E.R.: Sonderabfall aus Betrieben und Altlasten -Vermeidungsstrate-gien, in: VDI (Ed.): Sondermüll: thermische Behandlung und Alterna-tiven, VDI-Berichte 664, Düsseldorf 1987.

Szelinksi, B.A.: Die Baseler UNEP-Konvention über die grenzüberschreitende Abfallentsorgung und ihre Auswirkungen auf Deutschland, in: Wasser + Boden, H. 4/1991, p. 199 - 202.

Tharun, G., Thanh, N.C., Bidwell, R. (Eds.): Environmental Management for Developing Countries, Vol. 2 (Waste and Water Pollution Control - Evaluation and Decision Making) and Vol. 3 (Environmental Assessment and Management), Asian Institute of Technology Continuing Education Center Series, Bangkok 1983.

Wilson, D.C., Balkau F.: Adapting hazardous waste management to the needs of developing countries - an overview and guide to action, in : Waste Management and Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 1990, p. 87 - 98.

Loose-leaf collections / Supplements:

Birn/Jung: Abfallbeseitigungsrecht für die betriebliche Praxis, Loseblattsammlung.

BMZ/GTZ: Katalog umweltrelevanter Standards ’84, Eschborn.

Hösel/Kumpf/Linder: Technische Vorschriften für die Abfallbeseitigung, Lose-blattsammlung.

Kumpf/Maas/Straub: Müll- und Abfallbeseitigung (Müllhandbuch), Loseblatt-sammlung.

Wetzbacher: Neue Datenblätter für gefährliche Arbeitsstoffe nach der Gefahr-stoffverordnung.

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