19. Airports

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1. Scope

2. Environmental impacts and protective measures

2.1 Socio-economic structures
2.2 Ecosystem
2.3 Airport construction
2.4 Airports as workplaces
2.5 Bodies of water and groundwater protection
2.6 Aircraft noise
2.7 Traffic noise
2.8 Air quality
2.9 Odour
2.10 Microclimate

3. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts

3.1 Airports as workplaces
3.2 Aircraft noise
3.3 Traffic noise
3.4 Air quality

4. Interaction with other sectors

5. Summary assessment of environmental relevance

6. References


1. Scope

The aim of this environmental brief is to illustrate the environmental effects of the construction and operation of an airport and the appropriate measures for protecting the environment.

The construction of an airport and its operation are often of national significance, because the airport is expected to generate a wide range of economic activities which should help national development, and also because an airport is generally felt to represent its country.

The specific airport planning must take into consideration:

- possible ways of incorporating the necessary operational areas of the airport into existing urban or regional planning schemes (pressure for residential and commercial development),
- the service capacities and scope for extension of the existing transport infrastructure,
- the existing or extendable capacities of supply and disposal facilities,
- the suitability of the construction site,
- the situation regarding bodies of water and groundwater,
- possible ways of restoring the ecological balance,
- the optimum design of the installations to meet human needs and the incorporation of those installations into the surroundings,
- the nature and quantity of planned aircraft movements,
- the relevant national and international air safety regulations.

If serious environmental impacts cannot be avoided, either the planned location must be rejected or its use must be restricted (bans on night flying etc.).


2. Environmental impacts and protective measures

2.1 Socio-economic structures

Major airports are, as a rule, constructed on the peripheries of densely populated areas. The airport planning should therefore be incorporated into any existing urban or regional planning schemes.

The effects of the construction of an airport on a region's socio-economic structures are many and varied and it is difficult to say where one ends and another begins. The main points are as follows:

- changes in land-use,
- changes in price structures (price of land, food supplies etc.)
- changes of ownership,
- changes in the quality of residential life in the surrounding area,
- changes in occupation structure, which can result in extreme polarisation between the wealthy (international) organisations (hotel chains, restaurants, travel agencies, businesses etc.) and the poorer national surroundings,
- increased land settlement pressure from commercial and industrial establishments and transport companies,
- changes in local job market in terms of qualifications and pay,
- changes in social behaviour

(upward social mobility on the one hand, and corruption, theft, drug dealing etc. on the other).

The extent of these changes can be influenced to some degree by the planning parameters and by an appropriate choice of location. To some extent however these social changes are unavoidable, and can only be alleviated by appropriate supporting measures. To this end, it will be helpful to determine the social structure in the planning area and implement a promotional programme based on this for the population groups affected.

2.2 Ecosystem

Airports represent a serious encroachment on the landscape because of the large tracts of land which are sealed off and because of the far-reaching effects on the surrounding area.

The results of analyses of plant and animal life are a vital consideration when assessing the choice of location. Nature reserves and rare, large-area or interlinked biotopes may be reasons for ruling out locations, if the loss of these areas cannot be compensated for or natural substitute areas are not available. The more successful the efforts to incorporate local natural ecosystems into the new arrangement, the smaller the adverse effects on the surroundings.

Displacement of plants and animals in the areas directly affected by airport facilities and accompanying infrastructure is unavoidable, as a result of construction activities etc. In addition, the site must be cleared of obstacles and it may be necessary to create specific vegetation cover, which will bring different forms of population with it. Special precautions are necessary at airports to reduce the risk to air traffic of bird strike. Such measures are vital and basically involve restrictions on land-use and certain forms of production in the surrounding area. All the environmental conditions in those areas which encourage birds to congregate need to be changed in such a way that they become unattractive as a habitat or as a small-area and frequently visited migratory goal. Common measures include the filling in of bodies of water or their reduction or partition into smaller areas, and the prevention of new bodies of surface water forming. In certain circumstances it may also be necessary to remodel river banks and vegetation and prevent the cultivation of crops which attract birds. It is essential to prevent or close any rubbish tips in the immediate vicinity of airports; they are particularly attractive to birds in their quest for food, and by their nature they provide suitable feeding grounds for other small animal populations, thereby attracting birds of prey, which in view of their size pose an extreme hazard to aircraft in the event of collision, particularly in the area of the engines.

As regards landscape ecology measures, the aim should be to incorporate landscape-related ecosystems into the construction areas, and to distribute the building mass in such a way that the planned system has sufficient surface area available to achieve inherent stability. Inherent stability also has considerable financial significance in that it may reduce the investment and maintenance costs. Ecosystems should be combined within the airport facilities and at the same time they should be connected to the systems adjoining the airport; buffer zones help ameliorate the effects of the necessarily monostructural surroundings of the airport operational areas, bringing an ecological balance to the overall system and integrating it into the surrounding area.

2.3 Airport construction

The construction of an airport generally requires substantial earth movements and large quantities of construction materials.

The environmental impact which unavoidably results should be kept within limits through appropriate planning. The following are particularly important:

- optimisation of transport routes,
- utilisation of natural regional resources (e.g. soil from the surrounding area),
- use of construction materials which are available in the region or locally produced,
- use of local and environmentally aware construction companies,
- ecologically oriented remodelling of drainage conditions.

Airport construction requires a large building site, occupying a large area of land over a long period of time.

2.4 Airports as workplaces

The personnel employed in the operational areas of airports are exposed to safety risks and extreme noise.

The safety risks are to be reduced as far as possible by forward planning measures, e.g.:

- clear identification of transport routes,
- relevant operating instructions for equipment,
- technical supervision of equipment,
- physical and organisational precautions for handling hazardous substances (fuels, working supplies, dangerous cargoes etc.).

In addition, a list should be prepared which includes all hazardous materials which are normally used or frequently handled, giving details of their specific risks, the regulations under labour law concerning the handling of these substances and the emergency medical procedures to be adopted in the event of accidents involving the hazardous substance. The first-aid post must be equipped accordingly.

People who are exposed to extreme noise on the airport site must be protected by appropriate regulations. The corresponding German standards may serve as a guideline in this respect.

2.5 Bodies of water and groundwater protection

Precautions must be taken in the construction engineering to ensure that the groundwater balance and quality are not impaired by the construction and operation of the airport. In addition, the groundwater must be regularly monitored with upstream and downstream wells.

Because the soil is sealed over large areas due to the runways, buildings etc., the rainwater drainage systems need to be planned with particular care. To this end, a quantitative examination of the drainage conditions and the drainage capacities is required at the location selection stage. The basic data (frequency of rainfall, peak loads and frequency) for assessing the necessary rain retention basins and requisite drainage capacities should form part of a climatic survey or of a survey of the flying weather conditions. Likewise, the drainage coefficient of the relevant ground surface types should be taken into account.

Basically it must be assumed that rainwater can be contaminated on all sealed surfaces on the airport site. The runways and taxiways are affected by virtually unavoidable pollutants, foremost among which are: oil residues, fuel residues, de-icing agents (if used), cleaning agents and tyre wear residues.

The airport site must be provided with a sealed catchment and drainage system for rainwater. The collected rainwater is taken to a purification system with oil and petrol separators, before being discharged.

Sewage and wastewater produced on the airport site are led to a treatment system.

At airports, large quantities of substances hazardous to water such as fuels, mineral oils, chemical cleaning agents and solvents are stored, transferred and used. It must be guaranteed that they can be stored in accordance with regulations, and in a manner which is secure against leakage. Appropriate regulations must be established for handling substances hazardous to water, so as to minimise the risk of uncontrolled escape of these materials.

Steps must be taken to train personnel and make them aware of the problems.

There is always a possibility of accidents occurring, in which substantial volumes of substances hazardous to water may be released. There is the risk of contamination of surface water and groundwater alike. For this reason, airports should not be situated in surface water or groundwater conservation areas, especially if the water occurring is used as drinking water.

The gate which separates the catchment area from the retention basin to protect the groundwater in case of accident must be connected to an alarm system and operate automatically; alternatively the manual closure of the gate must be included as an item on a general accident checklist.

The fuel tank farms are to be protected against leakage in accordance with national and international regulations (e.g. collecting basins for escaping fuel), as well as against fire and explosion. Storage containers and pipelines are to be included in a leakage warning system.

2.6 Aircraft noise

Aircraft noise is generally regarded as the "the very worst noise of all", yet the noise pollution inflicted by aircraft on the areas surrounding airports is unavoidable.

Regional planning for the area around an airport must take account of these factors; land-use restrictions (industrial, commercial and residential areas) should be determined for noise protection areas, classified according to a noise level scale to be specified. The slum settlements which can be seen in many countries in the vicinity of airports should be avoided for safety reasons, and should be prevented as far as possible by means of landscaping measures (e.g. by extending the perimeters of the airport, appropriate transport route planning etc.).

The intensity and effects of the noise generated by airport operations are determined by the following factors:

- time of takeoffs and landings (day/night),
- the number of takeoffs and landings,
- the type of takeoff and landing procedures,
- the type of braking technique (reverse thrust),
- the type of aircraft,
- other noise emissions in the airport operations areas (turbine test runs, auxiliary turbines etc.),
- the location of takeoff and landing runways and taxiways.

Noise emissions can be reduced by technical measures such as the following:

  1. manufacturer's efforts to reduce engine noise,
  2. runway configuration designed taking the surrounding areas into account,
  3. sound-proofing measures for fixed emission sources (power plant testing, auxiliary turbines etc.) and
  4. measures to protect existing buildings in areas exposed to high levels of noise.

In addition, noise emissions can be reduced through operational regulations:

  1. restrictions on takeoff and landing times,
  2. specifying approach and departure flight paths, changing these on a regular basis if necessary,
  3. using less noisy takeoff and landing procedures,
  4. reducing braking by means of reverse thrust,
  5. charging higher takeoff and landing fees for older types of aircraft with loud engines (which may lead to less frequent use),
  6. operating an aircraft noise monitoring system in order to detect possible contravention of the noise abatement regulations.

At transport policy level too, steps can be taken to reduce noise emissions (switching to other modes of transport, ban on short-haul flights etc.); for further information see the environmental brief Transport and Traffic Planning.

2.7 Traffic noise

The noise generated inside airports by ground traffic is usually negligible because of the extreme spaciousness of the airport installations. The additional noise generated by traffic on the main access roads to airports is normally no higher than that to be expected from general use, provided these roads are efficient.

If heavily used roads pass through areas sensitive to noise, measurements must be taken to determine the overall burden. Protective measures must be taken to deal with the burden as a whole, or alternatively the transport flows must be rerouted. Splitting the traffic flows into a number of less heavily burdened routes is not a sensible approach.

It is a good idea to have low-noise modes of transport (rail systems) serving the airport.

2.8 Air quality

Particularly in areas of high population density, large volumes of pollutants are discharged into the atmosphere every day by traffic, building heating systems, industry and power stations. The emissions produced by an airport are to be regarded as an additive component in the field of ground-level pollution.

The emissions from air traffic and (road vehicle) feeder traffic are very similar in composition, and are technically very difficult to trace to their respective sources. Because of the quantity of emissions produced by aircraft and the air-chemical and meteorological context, it may be assumed that the pollution caused by emissions from air traffic is low compared with the ground-level sources in urban areas. Emissions produced during flights at altitudes of 6-12,000 metres have additional effects whose damage potential has not yet been fully researched.

Increased immissions (HC, CO, NOx) may occur in the immediate vicinity of airports with large numbers of aircraft movements (and resultant high volumes of feeder traffic), particularly in areas with unvarying weather patterns. It is therefore a good idea to aim towards integrating the airport area into a regional air monitoring system.

If specified limits are exceeded, appropriate administrative measures can be applied to restrict road traffic initially, and also air traffic if necessary.

An assessment of the frequency of inversion weather patterns in the region of the airport should form part of a climate evaluation study, or of a survey of the flight weather conditions.

2.9 Odour

Air traffic may generate unpleasant odours, but these are generally limited to the airfield itself and the immediate vicinity.

Road vehicle feeder traffic likewise generates odours which may cause annoyance, particularly in nearby residential areas.

2.10 Microclimate

Construction activities over large areas generally cause changes in the natural climatic conditions. The main causes, which lead to the formation of a separate microclimate ("town climate"), have to do with the extensive changes to the heat balance, water balance and local wind patterns. The accumulation of pollutants in the air also has an effect. How marked this microclimate is depends primarily on the size of the developed area, the building structure, the terrain and the proportion of open space.

Possible ways of influencing the microclimate in the construction and planning must be determined by means of a climatic survey.


3. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts

3.1 Airports as workplaces

To limit the noise burden on the airport personnel, the German workplace regulations Arbeitsstättenverordnung (which have the authority of law) and the accident prevention regulations on noise Unfallvrehütungsvorschrift "Lärm" (regulations adopted by the Berufsgenossenschaften (employers' liability insurance associations)) allow for a maximum evaluated level (A-evaluated equivalent sustained noise level over 8 hours) of 85 dB(A); above this level, personal noise protection must be provided, and above 90 dB(A) its wearing is compulsory.

3.2 Aircraft noise

A number of different procedures are or have been applied or proposed in different countries for evaluating aircraft noise.

These calculation processes take into consideration the number, duration and level of individual noise events and their distribution over the course of a day. These results are not directly comparable with one another because of the different weightings involved.

In Germany, the DIN standard 45 643, "Messung und Beurteilung von Flugzeuggeräuschen" (Teil 1: Meß- und Kerngrößen; Teil 2: Fluglärmüberwachungsanlagen im Sinne von Paragraph 19a Luftverkehrsgesetz; Teil 3: Ermittlung des Beurteilungspegels für Fluglärmimmissionen), serves as the basis for evaluating guideline values.

There are a large number of studies available regarding the effect of noise on the physiological, psychological and social functions of human beings. Special investigations into aircraft noise burdens conducted on sections of the population in the areas surrounding airports are likewise available; one of the most important of these is the study by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG- German Resarch Foundation).

3.3 Traffic noise

The German DIN standard 18005 can be applied for calculating and forecasting traffic noise, although the orientation values (guideline values) are not applied.

3.4 Air

Table 1 lists the emissions from different jet engines. The guideline, reference and limit values for the acceptability of air pollution by carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone and dust apply as shown in Table 2. "Maximum immission values" have been established by the Commission of the Verband Deutscher Ingenieure (Association of German Engineers - VDI) to maintain air purity and avoid damage to public health and particularly the health of children, the elderly and the sick, and to protect animals, plants and property from damage. These values have a firm scientific basis and are derived from empirical findings with medical indications.

Table 1 - Emissions from jet aircraft engines

Aircraft type Takeoff weight Engine HC CO NOx
    (to) kg/LTO2   Cycle
B747 348 4 x JT9D-7 36.0 76.1 57.6
DC 10 251 3 x CF6-50C2 34.3 68.1 41.6
L 1011 196 3 x RB 211-22 70.3 115.0 41.5
B 720/B 149 4 x JT3C-3B 97.7 92.0 14.7
707/DC 8          
A 300 137 2 x CF6-60C2 22.9 45.4 27.7
A 310 125 2 x CF6-80A 3.3 14.8 22.2
B 727 81 3 x JT8D-7 7.4 24.6 11.1
B 737-300 56 2 x CFM 65-3 0.7 12.5 7.8
B 737-DC 51 2 x 7T8D-7 5.0 16.4 7.4
9/S 210          
BAC 1-11 43 2 x S Mk 511 22.6 39.7 11.7
Fk 28 21 2 x S Mk 555 34.3 34.1 4.6
Car/lorry     mg/metre of vehicle    
traffic       11.8 4.0

1) LTO = Landing and take off

Source: Umweltbundesamt [German Federal Environmental Agency]: Luftbelastung durch den Flugverkehr (air burden caused by air traffic); Report II, March 03, 1984

Table 2 - Guideline, reference, and limit values for air pollutants in µg/m3

Pollutant TA-value MI WHO EC limit value standard EC ended Recomm Luft*
I1       140 50 40-60 80-200 50
I2     400       250-350 140
24 h       300 125   100-150 100
1/2 h       1000       200
I1   80     50     50
I2   200       135 200 140
24 h     100 150       100
1/2 h     200 400     200  
I1           50    
1/2 h   120 150-200     150    
I1 150       40-60   80 75
I2 300           250 150
24 h     300 120 100-150     150
1/2 h     500          
I1 10,000 10,000       10,000    
I2 30,000         14,000    
24 h   10,000            
1/2 h   50,000 60,000       20,000  

The meteorological data such as temperature, air humidity, precipitation, air pressure, wind, cloud cover and radiation do not act in isolation on human beings, therefore a combined assessment is required. Above all, it is the combination of thermal effects which exerts a bioclimatic effect. In bioclimatology, one speaks of complex attributes such as sultriness, comfortableness, perceived temperature etc.

The assessment of the microclimate is indeed subjective, and depends on the daily constitution of the individual person; nevertheless, defined limits have been established (Höppe 1986, "Schwülemass"; Jendritzki 1979, "PMV Index", and "Behaglichkeitsberechnungen").


4. Interaction with other sectors

In airport planning, a whole series of interactions with other sectors must be taken into account, including in particular the following:

* Regional Planning
* Town Planning
* Transport Planning
* Industrial Planning
* Provision and Rehabilitation of housing
* Energy Planning
* Public Institutions, Schools, Health Management, Hospitals
* Water Framwork Planning
* Urban Water Supply
* Wastewater Disposal
* Solid Waste Disposal
* Disposal of Hazardous Waste
* Road Building and Maintenance, Rural Road Building
* Road Traffic
* Railways and Railway Operation.

In particular, attention must be paid to the protection of bodies of water and groundwater in order to avoid large-scale environmental impairment due to an airport project. Interlinking with town and regional planning and water management planning is therefore essential.


5. Summary assessment of environmental relevance

The construction of an airport entails unavoidable disturbances of the environment.

As a first step, it should be established whether limit values or other relevant standards can be adhered to and the environmental impacts minimised both during construction and during operation. An analysis should then be made to determine the costs of minimising the environmental impacts. Weighing up the economic benefits on the one hand and the costs on the other will reveal the project's financial viability.

The population groups affected should be involved in the project preparation as early as possible; in this context, questions regarding the environmentally acceptable execution of the project are particularly important in the initial phase. Where agricultural land is liable to be used, alternative sources of income for the local population, and for women in particular, should be looked into.

Parameters should be set in the project planning and requirements laid down in the project execution to ensure that:

- environmental impacts are kept to a minimum,
- damage is avoided or, where this is not possible, limited,
- long-term damage is avoided as far as possible.

Emission limits to protect the environment can only be implemented and monitored if the necessary supervisory bodies are properly institutionalised and function adequately. This must be taken into account when establishing the relevant planning parameters. It is advisable to appoint environmental protection and worker safety officers, who should receive training, further training and technical support to enable them to perform the appropriate supervisory tasks and generally uphold the interests of environmental protection and worker safety in all relevant activities.


6. References

Airports as workplaces

Arbeitsstättenverordnung: Bundesgesetzblatt (Federal Law Gazette) 1975, Teil 1, Nr. 32; TA Lärm -Technische Anleitung "Lärm" zum Paragraph 16 der Gewerbeordnung; appendix to the Bundesanzeiger No. 137, 1968.

Deutscher Ausschuß für brennbare Flüssigkeiten; Technische Regeln für brennbare Flüssigkeiten; TRbF, Reihen 100 and 200.

UVV Lärm: Unfallverhütungsvorschrift "Lärm"; VB G 121, 1974.

Verordnung über Anlagen zur Lagerung, Abfüllung und Beförderung für brennbare Flüssigkeiten zu Lande: Bundesgesetzblatt (Federal Law Gazette) 1975, Teil 1, Nr. 8.

Protection of bodies of water and groundwater

DVGW - Regelwerk (Dt. Ver. d. Gas- und Wasserfaches e.V.):

- Arb.Bl. Nr. W 101 "Richtlinien für Trinkwasserschutzgebiete, Teil I, Schutzgebiete für Grundwasser", Frankfurt a.M. 1975.
- Arb. Bl. Nr. W 102 "Richtlinien für Trinkwasserschutzgebiete, Teil II, Schutzgebiete für Trinkwassertalsperren", Frankfurt a.M. 1975.
- Arb. Bl. Nr. W 806 "Hinweise für den Schutz der Wasserversorgung bei Unfällen und Betriebsstörungen mit wassergefährdenden Stoffen, vor allem Mineralölen, Mineralölprodukten", Frankfurt a.M. 1961.

Kalweit, H.: Verfahren zur Ermittlung von Hochwasserabflüssen aus kleinen Niederschlagsgebieten; Landesamt für Gewässerkunde, Mainz, 1973

Knapp, F.H.; Abfluß, Überfall und Durchfluß; Verlag C. Braun, Karlsruhe, 1960.

Ritscher, U.: Ein mathematisch-physikalisches Abflußmodell zur Berechnung von Hochwasserabflüssen und Untersuchungen des Betriebes von Rückhaltebecken; Mitteilungen des Instituts für Wasserbau, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Heft 31, 1971.

Aircraft noise

Anleitung zur Berechnung von Lärmschutzbereichen AzB nach dem Gesetz zum Schutz gegen Fluglärm: Bundesministerium des Inneren [German Federal Ministry of the Interior], 1971.

DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - German Research Foundation): Forschungsbericht Fluglärmwirkungen, Bd. I, II, III, 1974.

DIN 45 643 "Fluglärmüberwachung in der Umgebung von Verkehrsflughäfen; Meß und Kenngrößen; Fluglärmüberwachungsanlagen; Entwurf 1980.

DIN 18 005 "Schallschutz im Städtebau" 1989, Teil I, Berechnungen und Bewertungsgrundlagen

International Civil Aviation Organisation: ICAO-Annex, Volume I, 1981; (corresponding limit values are given in the aircraft notice LSL (Bekanntmachung für Luftfahrzeuge) of the Luftfahrtbundesamt, 1981).

Jansen, G.: Klosterkötter, W.: Lärm und Lärmwirkungen - ein Beitrag zur Klärung von Begriffen; Bundesministerium des Inneren [German Federal Ministry of the Interior], 1980.

Lutz, P.: Expert assessment, "Fluglärmkonturen in der Umgebung des Flughafens Stuttgart", 1982

Martin, R.; Finke, H.O.: Fluglärmmessungen in Wohngebieten; Kampf dem Lärm, Heft 1, 1970.

VDI Richtlinie 2719: Schalldämmung von Fenstern, Beuth-Verlag Berlin

Air pollution

EC Directive 85/203/EEC of 27.03.85 on air quality standards for nitrogen dioxide

EC Directive 80/779/EEC of 15.07.80 on air quality limit values and guide values for sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates

EC Directive 89/427/EEC of 14.07.89 on air quality limit values and guide values for sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates

Kühling, W.: Planungsrichtwerte für die Luftqualität, Schriftenreihe Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Materialienband 4.045, 1986.

Lahmann, E.; Wagner, M.: "Luft-Qualitäts-Kriterien" für Stickoxide, Bundesgesundheitsblatt No. 20, 291-296, 1972.

Reuter, U.; Baumüller, J.; Hoffmann, U.: Luft und Klima als Planungsfaktor im Umweltschutz, Verlag Expert-Service, 1989.

TA-Luft - Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft: 1. Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift zum Bundes-Immissionschutzgesetz of 27.2.1986, GMBI (joint ministerial circular) 1989.

Umweltbundesamt [German Federal Environmental Agency] Luftbelastung durch den Luftverkehr, Bericht II, March 3, 1984.

VDI Richtlinie 2310: Maximale Immissionkonzentrationen, Beuth-Verlag Berlin.

WHO: Air Quality Guidelines for Europe; WHO Regional Publications. European Series No. 23, 1987.

Willner, L.: Immissionsprognosen - Vergleich verschiedener Verfahren, Staub -Reinhaltung der Luft 29, 143-147, 1969.


Bekanntmachung des Baugesetzbuch: Bundesgesetzblatt (Federal Law Gazette) 1986, Teil 1, Nr. 64.

DVGW - Regelwerk (Dt. Ver. d. Gas- und Wasserfaches e.V.).
- Arb.Bl. Nr. W 101 "Richtlinien für Trinkwasserschutzgebiete, Teil I, Schutzgebiete für Grundwasser", Frankfurt a.M. 1975.

European Community: Directive No. 85/337/EEC, 1987.

Höppe, P.: Die thermische Komponente des Stadtklimas, in: Bioklima in der Stadt, Münchener Universitätschriften Nr. 53, 1986.

Jendritzki, G.; Sönning, W.; Swantjes, H.J.: Ein objektives Bewertungsverfahren zur Beschreibung des thermischen Milieus in der Stadt- und Landschaftsplanung; Beitr. Akad. Raumforsch. u. Landesplanung, Nr. 85, 1979.

Lorenz, D.: Meteorologische Probleme bei der Stadtplanung; FBW-Blätter, Folge 5, Stuttgart 1973.

VDI Richtlinien: Meteorologische Messungen für Fragen der Luftreinhaltung

VDI 3786

Blatt 2: Wind
Blatt 3: Lufttemperatur
Blatt 4: Luftfeuchte
Blatt 5: Globalstrahlung, direkte Sonnenstrahlung und Strahlungsbilanz
Blatt 6: Normsichtweite
Blatt 7: Niederschlag
Blatt 8: Aerologische Messungen
Blatt 9: Visuelle Wetterbeobachungen

VDI 3787

Blatt 1: Umweltmeteorologie, Klima und Lufthygiene für Städte und Regionen (in preparation)
Blatt 2: Humanbiometeorologische Bewertung von Klima und Lufthygiene für die Stadt- und Regionalplanung

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