23. Inland ports

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1. Scope

2. Environmental impacts and protective measures

2.1 Overview
2.2 Construction or expansion of inland port infrastructure or superstructure

2.2.1 Shore-side facilities
2.2.2 Water-side facilities

2.3 Port operation

2.3.1 Shore-side port operation
2.3.2 Water-side port operation

3. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts

4. Interaction with other sectors

5. Summary assessment of environmental relevance

6. References


1. Scope

The inland ports sector covers all the operations performed for the purpose, at inland ports, of transporting people (e.g. at ferry ports) or ensuring the safe transfer, transit storage, and movement in transit of solid, liquid, and gaseous materials of all kinds in the course of transferring such materials from landborne to waterborne modes of transport or vice versa (the primary function of a port).

Landborne modes of transport Waterborne modes of transport
Railborne vehicles
Road vehicles
Inland waterway vessels, ferries, barges, push tugs

The "inland port infrastructure" sub-sector covers all the shore-side and water-side facilities at an inland port that it requires in order to perform its primary function or that come into being at the port in the form of industrial, trading or service facilities, i.e. to allow it to perform its secondary function.

The shore-side facilities include, amongst other things:

- roads, railways and land for other transport uses;
- open storage and stacking areas, storage sheds and silos, tank farms, crane tracks,
- bridges, viaducts, overpasses, underpasses, pipelines, etc.,
- supply and disposal facilities (for water, power, wastewater, refuse, etc. )
- flood protection structures, embankments, etc.
- buildings, such as office buildings and fitting-out and repair shops,
- industrial facilities and buildings for port-related and secondary industries, e.g. shipyards and shipyard buildings.

The water-side facilities include, amongst other things:

- harbour basins and entrances, approach channels, locks, moles, safety gates, ship lifts, etc.,
- cargo handling quays and piers, bank revetments, ro-ro and ferry facilities, dolphins and landing piers,
- shipyard slipways and fitting-out quays.

The nature, design and location of all facilities in the inland port infrastructure sub-sector will depend on:

- the local water-side and shore-side conditions,
- the nature of the goods in transfer and the volumes involved (general cargo: conventional, containers, ro-ro; bulk cargo: bulk general cargo, loose cargo such as ore, coal, grain, and industrial salts, or bulk liquid or gaseous materials such as oil, LNG, etc.);
- the associated water-side and shore-side modes of transport (see above);
- the operating requirements and schemes arising from the above;
- the links with the hinterland by road, rail, inland waterways (canals) and pipelines,
- the existing or incoming structures in the environs (trade and industry).

The "inland port superstructure" sub-sector covers all the non-permanent shore-side and water-side facilities at an inland port that are related to its primary or secondary functions. These include, amongst other things:

- dredgers and other maintenance and repair facilities,
- mobile supply and disposal facilities and fire-protection and disaster control facilities (e.g. vehicles and vessels for dealing with oil spills).

Non-permanent suprastructural facilities in the port environs or serving its secondary function can be briefly classified under the following headings:

- the supply and disposal superstructure,
- transport superstructure,
- the maintenance and repair superstructure provided by port-related trade and industry.

A distinction also needs to be made between general ports, and specialist ports that handle only goods of a specific type. Even at "general" ports, it is becoming increasingly common for goods of only one kind or category to be handled at dedicated facilities known as terminals (oil terminals, ore or grain terminals, ro-ro terminals, etc.). This is done either for safety reasons or because of the specialised equipment needed.

On the basis of their location, inland ports also have to be divided into river and canal ports.

River ports Canal ports
Ports on river banks or extending parallel to estuaries, Artificial harbour basins and approaches,
Ports in bays Ports on or parallel to canal banks

The setting up of natural ports generally calls for less far-reaching interference with the natural environment.


2. Environmental impacts and protective measures

2.1 Overview

The environmental impacts generated by inland ports are generally considerable and they result firstly from the building, conversion or extension of inland port facilities (infrastructural and suprastructural), but secondly and to a major degree they arise from the operation (on both land and water) of all the port facilities, of trade and industry and of the transport systems.

The environmental impacts affect water, land, air, flora and fauna of all kinds (both on land and in the water), and human beings.

Causes Impacts on
New construction Water
Conversion Ground
Development/extension Air
Operation of all facilities Flora and fauna (aquatic and terrestrial)
  Human beings

In principle, the environmental impacts will be greater, the larger is the building or extension project or the busier are cargo handling activities at a port (measured in t/a).

Impacts of specific kinds arise from dangerous goods classified as such in the IMDG code (International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code), even if they are only in small quantities.

In broad terms, in the "infrastructure and superstructure" field environmental impacts are created:

- primarily by the port itself, viewed as the totality of all the water-side and shore-side structures used for the purposes of shipping and cargo-handling operations, and
- secondarily by the industrial concerns, generally ones with a close connection with seaports, which come into the area to serve as an infrastructure for processing and refining goods and raw materials and which, by being set up, cause changes in the natural conditions and which must therefore be viewed as an interference with nature and the landscape.

In the sphere of "operations", impacts are created

- primarily by all activities carried on, such as movements of vessels, loading, unloading, storage, transport, supply and disposal, and maintenance and repair, and
- secondarily by all the activities carried on in the contiguous industrial area for the purposes of processing and refining.

The above activities entail changes in the natural conditions and conditions of life and may thus have an effect on human beings, animals, nature and the landscape.

2.2 Construction or expansion of inland port infrastructure or superstructure

2.2.1 Shore-side facilities

Although this varies with the projected volumes and kinds of cargo to be handled, a port normally takes up large areas of land, particularly when there is provision for open storage areas, storage sheds and industrial estates. This being the case, a port always involves considerable interference with the existing natural landscape in that river banks and wetlands, etc. are artificially stabilised and built over, and land is levelled and sealed. This produces impacts on/changes to, in particular, sensitive areas such as woodland and forest, wetlands, farmland, and residential areas, these impacts/changes resulting from excavation/replacement of soil or filling operations, surface sealing, drainage/drying operations, high ground loads and somewhat unattractive special-purpose structures. Although the above are obviously determined in essence by the purpose for which they are intended, it is still possible for shore-side environmental protection measures to be implemented by making provision for them in the infrastructural planning at the outset.

Open cargo handling, storage and holding areas should be designed to satisfy the following criteria in the light of the nature of the goods to be handled, the volumes involved, and the mode of operation:

a) With ore, coal and salts, care must be taken to see that

- as dictated by the bulk weights and dumped heights involved, storage areas are designed to be sufficiently strong and well sealed to stop the subsoil and the surroundings from being affected by settlement;
- a drainage system extending around and across these areas and sized to suit the expected precipitation levels is planned in such a way that polluted surface water and surface water charged with heavy metals will not be able to penetrate or seep into the soil and rivers/canals or run into them (settling basins and, where necessary, treatment plants will be required).

b) Where bulk goods are stored, covers built over sheds and sprinkler systems may be provided as an effective means of keeping down dust but they are expensive to build and maintain.

- Bulk goods that are vulnerable to the weather must always be stored under cover or in silos.

c) Where oil and other liquids are to be handled, provision must be made for the ground in loading and discharge areas and tank farms to be sealed to suitable standards of liquid-tightness and for oil separators or other waste-water cleaning facilities to be installed; otherwise the only way in which the pollution of groundwater and lake water by leaking liquids can be combatted is by way of operating procedures.

Shore-side port extensions must be planned well in advance so that the land required can be earmarked and kept clear in good time. It is observed that ports tend to encroach on established settled areas or areas that should be protected, resulting in forced resettlement and land clearance, and the advance planning mentioned is the only way in which such encroachment, and the advance of uncontrolled settlement that may equally well occur, can be prevented.

Tall buildings, special-purpose structures, industry and residential settlements have an essential part to play in the development of a port region. The following will help to ensure that their planning and design is environment-orientated:

- areas intended for different purposes should be kept separate from one another;
- environment-friendly building materials should be used;
- an optimum balance should be struck between building height/usable height and ground area occupied;
- land should not be wasted;
- the architecture of tall buildings and special-purpose structures should follow the building style of the country concerned;
- an open layout should be adopted by planting/grassing the open spaces around buildings and, where possible, the margins of the open storage spaces in the port;
- where industries move into the port area they should use techniques considerate of the environment;
- an infrastructure for water supply and wastewater discharge should be built aimed at preserving groundwater and surface water resources and keeping lake water clean.

The development of a port often entails the movement into it of industries. Experience shows that the new jobs created, or often just a hope of gainful employment, lead to a greater and sometimes uncontrolled influx of workers and their families. It is therefore essential when ports are being planned that attention is paid to providing living conditions fit for human beings in the fields of housing and sanitation. In this connection suitable allowance must be made for needs specific to women. A particular risk that exists is that of creating ghettos near the port.

The development of a port area and the associated industrial areas places an enormous burden on all the supply and disposal facilities and services. The demand for water and the amount of wastewater occurring should be highlighted in this connection because of the impacts they may have on the environment. However, it is not just water but the consequences for air and the land, the spoiling of the landscape and the effects of traffic that also need to be pondered, particularly in the planning phase.

2.2.2 Water-side facilities

Water-side port facilities (e.g. turning basins, port entrances, etc.) generally cover a large area and therefore constitute a major interference with nature and the landscape. It is however possible by careful planning to keep down the environmental impacts1). The aim in planning and installing the water-side facilities in a port should always be to use preliminary surveys of natural data and, where appropriate, model tests to familiarise oneself with prevailing environmental conditions, such as

1) As far as possible, port facilities should be blended in with the general look of the landscape.

- wind and wave conditions,
- current and sedimentation conditions,
- water, soil and air conditions,

and to build in harmony with these defining conditions and not in conflict with them.

The buildup of sediment will make it necessary for regular maintenance dredging operations to be undertaken to maintain the appropriate depths of water but pumping out or dumping into the water of dredged material creates major environmental problems, especially because:

- the mud in question may have been contaminated by general water pollution, by discharged wastewater, or by oil or heavy metals;
- over long periods it becomes necessary for large areas to be given over to pumped out or dumped material, and such areas are difficult and expensive to recultivate;
- dumping into the water causes changes in the bed configuration and in the aquatic flora and fauna.

These consequential impacts can best be avoided by planning structures geared to the existing currents well in advance and by providing suitable disposal facilities.

The design of port facilities should take advantage of the natural effects of the river current and also of the differing seasonal water levels in the river, e.g. to keep approaches clear, which can be achieved by the careful siting both of training dykes to guide and concentrate the current (for a flushing action), and of harbour enclosing works (particularly in the approach area with a view to preventing lee erosion) and of wharfage, which if possible should not be positioned in areas of dead water. Port facilities should not be sited in areas where the water is brackish (where salt water and fresh water meet, resulting in greater volumes of silt being deposited).

Fishing grounds and aquaculture areas supporting river fishing activities, together with natural flora and fauna, may be adversely affected by port construction because it causes the loss of large areas of water and valuable breeding grounds and habitats.

Consequential impacts that may follow on from the adverse effects on fish stocks may be health risks from eating fish, and these in turn may result in job losses in the fishing industry. Extensive involvement of fishing interests should therefore be aimed at right from the stage when port facilities are being planned.

Other hazards that may arise directly from a port facility are the types of consequential damage that are caused by wastewater discharge or changes in the groundwater level in the area of the port. Remedial measures to reduce water pollution in the port will mainly consist of ensuring that discharges remain as low as possible or of permitting the discharge of treated water only.

No adverse environmental impacts need be expected from the building materials that are normally used to construct port facilities (concrete, broken stone).

Steel sheet-piling on the other hand will suffer severe corrosion in hot regions when exposed to salt water and above all brackish water, and it should therefore only be considered for use if it can be protected with anti-corrosion media. The suitability of wood for use as a building material is only limited (its working life is questionable because of the rot that occurs in parts exposed to water and air alternately). Although they are greatly valued as a building material because of their strength and long life, tropical hardwoods should not be used.

2.3 Port operation

In what follows, port operation will be understood to mean not just the classic activity performed at a port (the handling of goods) but all the operating activities which take place on land and water in the services, commercial and transport sectors on the basis of the port's existing infrastructure (including its industries).

2.3.1 Shore-side port operation

The possible environmental impacts from the shore-side workings of the port, and the hazards they create, will be mainly determined by the nature of the goods and materials being handled. The method of handling will also be important.

The environmental impacts that are possible, classified by type of goods as given below

- bulk liquid materials,
- bulk solid materials,
- general cargo,
- containers,

are as follows:

(a) Where oil, liquid chemicals or other liquid materials are being handled, it is possible that lake water and groundwater may be polluted; fires and explosions may occur, resulting in smoke, fumes and gases being generated; oil, petroleum derivatives, liquid chemicals or other liquid materials may accidentally leak or be discharged; petroleum derivatives such as petrol, diesel fuel and kerosene may unintentionally be mixed, e.g. by misconnection of hoses or use of the wrong pipelines or in the course of pigging (cleaning of the interior of a pipe with a "pig"), thus raising the flash point; people may smoke or cook in the immediate vicinity of tank farms or discharge terminals or on tankers without appreciating what they are doing; tanks may be drained on the vessel (i.e. on the water) or on land, thus allowing dangerous gases to develop.

If steps are to be taken to prevent environmental damage in connection with bulk liquid materials, it will therefore be necessary to provide not only an adequate infrastructure in the loading, unloading and tank farm areas but also and above all an efficient corporate scheme of organisation in which duties and responsibilities are clearly defined. It must also be ensured that the personnel working in these areas are thoroughly trained (see in this connection the MARPOL Convention).

On the equipment side, the following safety precautions and items of equipment will be needed:

- skimming equipment (oil booms and skimmers)
- oil-binding substances (for small amounts only)
- supplies of sand
- fire-fighting systems with hydrants
- sprinkler systems
- foam-generating systems
- an emergency power supply
- individual pumps for supplying water
- impounding walls on the tank farm
- safety intervals between tanks and between tanks and other installations.

Where a project includes the commissioning of oil terminals, tank farms or refineries, for the planning to be environment-orientated it will need to make provision for training and instruction programmes for the personnel employed which will ensure that they are trained in good time.

(b) Where bulk solid materials such as grain, livestock feed, ore, coal and industrial salts are being handled, the environmental impacts that may arise are ones such as pollution of groundwater and lake water and considerable dust and noise pollution. Also, systems for feeding bulk materials are an unavoidable intrusion into the natural landscape because of their size and are a dust-explosion and fire hazard.

Provided that there is an adequate building infrastructure, then here too there will be a need for the personnel to be organised and trained by the company. It will also be necessary for use to be made of only the allocated storage areas properly sealed off to protect the groundwater, and for regular maintenance and repair work to be carried out (such as keeping the inlets to the drainage system for rainwater clear in the storage areas). Normally, there is no way of stopping dust and noise except by fitting up covers, dust removal systems and dust-laying sprinkler systems or by building sheds. Loading and interface points should be enclosed wherever possible, and materials that generate dust should not be allowed to travel in free fall. Depending on its composition and fineness, dust may create chemical, biological, mechanical and electrical/electrostatic problems.

(c) Where general cargo and containers are being handled, the large items of equipment required (e.g. container gantries that may be up to 70 m in height with the jib nearer the water raised) are a major intrusion into the landscape.

The items of equipment in question work fast and to high standards of accuracy, and the only conceivable alternatives are using ship's gear or mobile shore equipment (straddle carriers, large fork-lifts). These however entail a major sacrifice of speed and safety.

To avoid the need for frequent movements while in transit, containers are stacked, generally no more than three high, by special items of horizontal and vertical handling equipment. This means a high land uptake.

Depending on the type of horizontal and vertical handling equipment used and its manoeuvrability, extra space may be needed for manoeuvring, and the equipment in question will also produce noise and exhaust emissions. Further uptake of land will be caused by the need for entry and exit areas and areas for connecting traffic. Such areas of land are generally sealed and they will therefore require an efficient drainage system with dedicated water treatment facilities.

Even the handling of conventional general cargo is undergoing a process of mechanisation, and this process is producing environmental impacts on the people working in ports. Traditional jobs are being destroyed in many cases. An adjustment process to adapt to these changes can only be brought about by means of social planning and re-education, backed by training/retraining which should be catered for back at the planning stage.

Mechanised cargo handling also means a great deal of nuisance from exhaust emissions and noise, except where electrically driven equipment is used. Low-noise, emission-controlled equipment should be used.

Containers and unitised and conventional general cargoes may also include consignments of dangerous solid or liquid materials (chemicals, etc.) that may cause environmental damage if the receptacles containing them are incorrectly handled/damaged.

The risk that exists in this case must be kept to a minimum by giving the personnel concerned thorough training and by providing proper safety equipment and taking the appropriate safety precautions.

(d) If not correctly handled or stored (it may be easily damaged with some types of packing; requisite protection from the weather may not be provided in store), conventional general cargo may, depending on its nature, produce direct or indirect consequential impacts. Cargo that has been damaged or wrongly stored is usually of no value to the consignee and will therefore have to be disposed of. The risk of incorrect disposal can only be avoided if the personnel are adequately trained and if an appropriate disposal infrastructure exists.

(e) The environmental impacts generated by trade and industry in the port area, and the associated environmental protection measures, will depend on the nature of the goods and raw materials that are being processing or refined. Details of these impacts and measures can be found in the appropriate environmental briefs.

2.3.2 Water-side port operation

The characteristic features of this aspect of the business of a port are inland navigation activities and the related operations such as

- ensuring ease of inland navigation (meaning in particular maintaining depths of water and hence performing maintenance dredging);
- supply to and disposal from vessels;
- vessel-to-vessel transshipments.

These activities, which are necessary for carrying on the water-side operations of the port, often have to be undertaken from vessels or floating equipment, and this being the case there will be adverse environmental impacts on the water and in the aftermath on the flora and fauna and groundwater, especially at the time of:

- berthing and casting-off manoeuvres (risk of damage to the vessels and leaks)
- refuelling
- discharge and loading and also lightening
- disposal (of wastewater and refuse)
- cleaning of tanks/holds
- repair work.

These environmental impacts can only be stopped by giving training to the persons working in the above areas and supplying them with the appropriate equipment in the form of tugs, supply vessels, lighters, pumps, oil booms, etc. The principal initiators of such efforts should be the port authorities or the port operators, as the case may be.

Another focus for adverse environmental impacts will be maintenance dredging operations carried out in the port and its approaches. The dumping of dredged material almost always constitutes interference with nature and the landscape, particularly when the dredged material in question is contaminated due to environmental pollution in the port (discharges). Because of the risk to the flora and fauna and to the groundwater, such material should be pumped out not in tributaries of the river but on dumps suitably sealed off from the groundwater (spoil areas) situated as far away as possible from residential settlements. Any later effects which may be caused by such areas must be considered in good time and minimised by recultivation measures. The same is true of disposal by the port operator of wastewater and refuse arising in the port.

The hazards to the environment mentioned can only be prevented if the masters of vessels and the persons operating equipment act responsibly and if shipping traffic is monitored (threat of statutory penalties). Damage and its possible consequence of large-scale harm to the environment can be avoided on inland waterways and the approaches to inland ports if a system for directing shipping is provided. This system should be as simple as possible and geared to local conditions.


3. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts

For risks to the environment to be estimated and evaluated in this sector, it is first of all necessary for there to be accurate planning documents detailing the nature and volumes of the goods to be handled and for reliable targets to be set for future development. This includes both investigating opportunities for the processing and onward movement of goods and a careful survey both of physical conditions on site (terrain, soil, climate, groundwater, existing infrastructure, etc.) and of social conditions.

It is suggested that provision be made for integrated institutional planning of construction and operation, and that international or comparable German standards be adopted for defining and sizing all facilities and operations in order to rule out the possibility of consequences deleterious to the environment resulting from incorrect sizing.

The requirements applicable to facilities are, amongst others:

- international standards laid down by the MARPOL convention (Maritime Pollution Convention),
- strength, stability and durability criteria, such as those laid down in German DIN standards or recommendations of the German working committee on bank revetments EAU,
- disposal techniques (for wastewater and refuse) meeting international standards, plus comparable discharge levels for given types of wastewater,
- techniques for keeping the air clean, e.g. as laid down in the TA-Luft (Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control).

For the planning of the port, a detailed locational analysis will be needed. The most important parts of this analysis will be:

- measurement of current conditions and river engineering data or determination of hydraulic engineering conditions in existing or planned canal systems,
- physical and mathematical model tests to establish an optimum current regime and to prevent sedimentation,
- traffic analyses.

Particular attention should be paid to ensuring that standards are observed. For this purpose, port operating authority staff should be given appropriate specialised training and should be made aware, by means of suitable programmes, of the responsibility they have to preserve the environment. For this purpose it is crucially important for them to be equipped with inspection and monitoring gear and with equipment for combatting actual threats.


4. Interaction with other sectors

Inland ports and their approaches normally constitute major changes to the existing natural and socio-economic and socio-cultural structure of a region. This wide impact is due to the goals implicit in the construction of an inland port, namely to promote the development of a region on a broad front. Consequently, the present sector may interact with virtually any other sector, as dictated by the areas of development that are being singled out for attention.

What is supremely important here is the planning phase, in which is it is vital that the wide range of possible impacts are recognised in good time. Hence there will be a need for regional planning, transport and traffic planning, water framework planning and overall energy planning.


5. Summary assessment of environmental relevance

Generally speaking, it will not be possible to avoid impacts on the environment. However, it is possible for projects to be planned and executed with a large measure of consideration for the environment if:

- the goals set for the project are clearly defined;
- the operating and structural requirements are formulated by an integrated process;
- the existing framework conditions in the immediate and larger areas covered by the plan are properly established by detailed investigations;
- all conceivable inter-relationships and conflicting uses are covered right from the outset;
- from the start, the approach adopted is to observe strict environmental standards while employing the simplest possible designs/techniques geared to local requirements;
- the facilities built are ones which, when completed, can operate in a largely environment-friendly way.

If, on completion, the operation referred to is to be carried on by the operators in an environment-friendly manner as far as is technically feasible, then the objects of the planning process must also include:

- making full allowance at the outset for operating requirements;
- making provision for suitably comprehensive training to be given to the operators, the basis of this training being to instill an awareness of impacts on and damage to the environment.

The early involvement in the planning and decision-making processes of sections of the population likely to be affected, and particularly women, will enable their interests to be taken into account and will help to mitigate any environmental problems (conflicting land uses, environmental stress on residential areas by transport, etc.).

Only by ensuring an interplay of this kind between environment-orientated planning and execution of the project and environment-orientated operation of its results at a later date will it be possible for a lasting contribution to be made to improving economic conditions in the country concerned.


6. References

Beseitigung von Ölschlamm nach einem Tankerunfall/Allgemeine Grundlagen der Ölbekämpfung: Mitteilungen aus dem Niedersächsischen Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, Hildesheim, Heft 1, 1986.

Boltz: Oberflächenbefestigung und Fahrbahndecken im Hafen: Handbuch für Hafenbau und Umschlagtechnik, Band VI, 1961.

Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetz, BImSchG: Gesetz zum Schutz von schädlichen Umweltwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geräusche, Erschütterungen und ähnliche Vorgänge.

Commentz: Befestigung von Container-Umschlagplätzen; Handbuch für Hafenbau und Umschlagtechnik, Band XV, 1970.

Empfehlungen des Arbeitsauschusses: Ufereinfassungen EAU 1985, 7. Auflage; Verleger für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften, Ernst & Sohn, Berlin.

Fachseminar Baggergut: Ergebnisse aus dem Baggergut-Untersuchungsprogramm, Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Strom- und Hafenbau, 1984.

Hafentechnische Gesellscahft: Empfehlungen des Ausschusses für Hafenumschlag-geräte, 1977: Gesundheits- und Umweltschutz bei Umschlag und Lagerung von Schüttgütern und Häfen.

Hübler, Karl-Hermann and Zimmermann, Konrad Otto: Bewertung der Umwelt-verträglichkeit, Eberhard Blottner Verlag, Taunusstein, 1989.

Leo, R. et al.: Ölwehrhandbuch/Bekämpfung von Ölunfällen im Inland und auf See, Verlag K.O.Storek, Hamburg, 1983/87.

MARPOL Convention

Maßnahmen für Bekämpfung von Ölverschmutzungen auf dem Wasser: Projekt-gruppe Systemkonzept des Ölunfallausschusses See/Küste Cuxhaven, 1980.

Praktikable Entsorgungsmöglichkeiten für Binnenschiffe: Schiffsingenieur-Journal, 32. Jahrgang, 1986.

Umweltbehörde Hamburg: Der Hafen, eine ökologische Herausforderung, Inter-nationale Umweltkongreß, September 1989.

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