3. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts

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Emissions produced by the iron and steel industry require particularly extensive measures and systems for air protection. Above all, dusts containing substances hazardous to health and the environment, such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and thallium, must be cleaned by high-performance separation systems. Nowadays, not only the primary emission sources, such as sintering plants, but also secondary sources such as blast furnace casting bays can be intercepted and dedusted. In the case of gaseous emissions, attention must be paid primarily to reducing carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide, as well as nitrous oxides and fluorine compounds.

Monitoring of permissible emissions and the effectiveness of waste gas cleaning systems must be guaranteed by measurements. The dust must also be periodically analysed to detect heavy metals. Emissions must be measured after commissioning the plant to see whether the values assumed in the planning correspond to the reality. If there are discrepancies, new forecasts must be made and further reduction measures implemented if necessary.

Emission and immission standards applicable in Germany are detailed in TA-Luft (Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control) and in the Großfeuerungsanlagenverordnung (Ordinance on Large Firing Installations). In the USA, guidelines and standards for the iron and steel industry have been published by the Environmental Protection Agency.

The guidelines adopted by the Association of German Engineers (VDI) contain detailed descriptions for performing emission and immission measurements. Measuring equipment designed for continuous operation must be rigorously examined for robustness, error detection ability and ease of maintenance. Maintenance contracts should be concluded with suppliers. Continuously operating measuring instruments should be employed for measuring dust, sulphur dioxide, fluorine compounds and nitrous oxides (e.g. in the sintering plant and the steel works).

Recycling of water and the use of closed-circuit cooling water systems deliver cost-savings and a high rate of re-use in iron and steel works. Effective water treatment systems are needed for this purpose.

General minimum requirements are laid down in Germany for treated wastewater discharged into receiving bodies of water and for special plants. These parameters must be monitored by measuring equipment at the point of transfer of the cleaned water to the receiving body of water. Cleaning systems for waste gases and water can only satisfy their intended purpose when they are correctly operated, serviced and repaired. The provision of detailed operating, maintenance and repair manuals is imperative.

Practically all processes involve greater or lesser levels of noise. High noise emissions can cause annoyance in the vicinity if reduction and protection measures are inadequate. In Germany, TA-Lärm (Technical Instructions on Noise Abatement) and the guidelines adopted by the Association of German Engineers (VDI) are used for calculating and assessing noise immissions in the neighbourhood. Noise immissions are assessed against immission reference values which are graded according to the type of area to be protected and the periods of noise. Guidelines are also available for assessing noise emissions at the workplace.

As in Germany, works environmental protection officers should be deployed in iron and steel works who are totally independent of the production side. Their task is essentially to work towards the development and introduction of environment-friendly processes. In addition they are entitled and obliged to monitor adherence to statutory regulations and compliance with official directives and conditions in so far as these relate to environmental protection.

The scope and monitoring of working conditions and health protection measures, which vary from one workplace to another, should be set down in a manual. Proposals are detailed in the regulations of the employers' liability insurance association (Berufsgenossenschaft) of the iron & steel industry. Suitably qualified safety officers and a works doctor should be appointed.


4. Interactions with other sectors

The erecting of iron and steel production plants involves land-use which is measured in terms of the works site with adjoining areas and connecting roads. Before erecting production plants, impacts on the local natural order and the geogenic and anthropogenic burdens on the soil and groundwater and on any bodies of surface water must be investigated in the context of the location planning. An adequate distance from the nearest residential zones must also be guaranteed. Details are contained in the environmental brief Planning of Locations for Trade & Industry.

Iron and steel works involve large-scale production and require large amounts of raw materials. These include primarily ores, coke and limestone. Generally speaking, to produce 1 tonne of crude steel requires 450 to 500 kg coke and fuel oil, 250 kg lime and 5 m3 water.

In an integrated iron works for example, the specific total energy consumption is some 20 GJ/t crude steel. In an integrated iron works, the sintering plant, blast furnace, coking plant, steel works, rolling mill and power station areas are interconnected as a combined energy system. Thus, the top gas is utilised in all areas, its calorific value enriched with converter gas, coking oven gas or natural gas. Power and steam are supplied by the power station. Boilers are usually operated with gas, e.g. top gas. The burners can be fired with top gas, coking oven gas or fuel oil. External power supplies are used in addition to internally generated power. Waste heat boilers from the steel works contribute to steam production.

A mixed iron works is linked to the following other sectors:

- The raw materials (ores, coal, limestone) must be mined in large quantities in open cast or deep mines. (See environmental briefs Surface Mining and Underground Mining).
- Ores must be dressed (see environmental brief Minerals - Handling and Processing).
- Efficient transport routes (canals, railways or roads) are required for transporting raw materials and products. For environmental protection reasons, transport should mainly be via inland waterways and railways. Whether the location of the iron works is chosen because of where the ore, coal or sales market is situated, high-capacity transport facilities must always be provided.
- Coke of specified quality must be supplied for the blast furnace by a coking plant. Reference should be made to the environmental brief Coking Plants, Coal to-gas Plants, Gas Production and Distribution to assess the environmental impacts associated with coke production.
- In view of the quantities of cooling water needed, an adequate water supply must be available. To avoid the adverse consequences of drawing excessive quantities of water from groundwater or surface water resources, extensive recirculation systems must be provided, internal treatment of wastewater and cooling water. Water consumption must be in harmony with the general water framwork planning.
- The large workforce of a mixed iron works may result in the disorganised development of housing at an insufficient distance from the plant. This can lead to water shortages, unsatisfactory wastewater treatment and disorganised dumps, plus immission burdens affecting the areas of habitation.
- Other sectors directly or indirectly linked to the iron and steel industry are: lime kiln plants, cement works, ferroalloy production plants, power generating plants and slag and dust recycling plants. The above plants and establishments are associated with considerable potential atmospheric burdens. Reference is made to the relevant briefs.
- A general or single-purpose dump is to be provided for non-recyclable residual and waste materials including furnace debris from the metallurgical processes with hazardous pollutants. These should be classified according to criteria of environmentally acceptable final storage (see environmental brief Disposal of Hazardous Waste).


5. Summary assessment of environment relevance

The establishment of iron and steel production plants in areas not previously used for industry will have an impact on the landscape. Environmental damage can be reduced by selecting locations with relatively insensitive landscapes where there is unlikely to be any great effect on the regional productiveness of the natural environment.

The environmental burdens imposed by an iron and steel making plant and related technologies relate to the air, water, soil, flora and fauna, waste, noise and vibration.

Efficient separators are available for reducing dust emissions. Important in this regard is the continuous monitoring of the operation of these separators using suitable measuring equipment. Since a large proportion of the separated dust can be re-utilised in the process, high-performance gas cleaning systems are desirable, not only for environmental protection reasons but also in the interests of economy. Increasing attention is being paid to random dust sources, e.g. from working bays. Tried and tested collection systems are available for this purpose. High dust immissions occur in the vicinity of iron works. Although high grade cleaning of waste gases reduces dust emissions, dust emissions for the iron works as a whole are between 1 and 3 kg/t, depending on the number of installed process stages and the extent of dust reduction from diffuse sources. 1 kg/t should be regarded as an optimum value. Studies should be carried out in all cases to determine whether agriculture in the vicinity of the works is being impaired by contamination over wide areas with phytotoxic and zootoxic heavy metals, especially zinc, copper, chromium, nickel and lead, taking into account long-term deposition and accumulation in the soil. Heavy metals, especially cadmium and mercury, can be injurious to human health through accumulation in the soil and in plants, with increased absorption through the food chain. Conflicts can be avoided or diminished by consulting the affected population groups at an early stage, possibly developing and planning new sources of employment (see also Vol. III, Compendium of Environmental Standards).

As the increased environmental burden poses additional health risks and hazards, e.g. for women and children (during pregnancy etc.), adequate medical care should be provided in the project region.

In some respects air protection measures lead to a shifting of problems, e.g. where separated residues cannot be recycled. A high degree of recycling of the material and energy present in dusts, sludges and gases is a basic requirement for environmental compatibility, and one that can be met. For materials which cannot be recycled, a dumping system must be selected which will enable environmentally acceptable final dumping.

Although technological development in iron works has led to high water consumption, use of water in the plants can be minimised by recycling as much as 80% and through the use of closed cooling circuits. The standards applicable to the cleaning of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals must be raised from the level of the general rules previously applicable in Germany to a truly "state-of-the-art" level.

Noise levels can be minimised by extensive noise reduction measures. However it is also important to ensure an adequate distance between the works site and neighbouring areas of habitation.

Possible ways of preventing adverse environmental impacts through state-of-the-art emission reductions in old plants include (in the process engineering area) replacing old converter techniques for steel production with low-emission converters and electric furnaces and introducing continuous casting in approximately final dimension form. In the waste gas and air purification area, the use of multistage separators, fine dust separators and the interception of diffuse emission sources is also possible in old plants. Increased recycling of residues and water will help reduce the environmental burdens imposed by old plants. Secondary noise reduction measures are more difficult to implement than primary measures.


6. References

Statutory provisions, regulations

Erste Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift zum Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz (Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft - TA-Luft) dated 27.02.1986, GMBl (joint ministerial circular). 1986, Ausgabe p, S.95.

Zweite Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift zum Abfallgesetz (TA-Abfall) Teil 1: Technische Anleitung zur Lagerung, chemisch-physikalischen, biologischen Behandlung, Verbrennung und Ablagerung von besonders überwachungs-bedürftigen Abfällen, Gemeinsames Ministerialblatt (joint ministerial circular) Nr. 8, p. 139 - 214 dated March 12, 1991.

24. Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift über Mindestanforderungen an das Einleiten von Abwasser in Gewässer (Eisen- und Stahlerzeugung), GMBl (joint ministerial circular). 1982, p. 297.

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: Liste maximaler Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen (MAK-Wert-Liste), 1990, Mitteilung XXVI, Bundesarbeitsblatt 12.1990, p. 35.

DIN 4301 (April 1981): Eisenhüttenschlacke und Metallhüttenschlacke im Bauwesen.

EC Council Directives of 12 May 1986 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to noise at work - 86/188/EEC and of June 14 1989 -89/392/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to machinery.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Effluent Guidelines for Iron and Steel

Manufacturing (CFR 420); Iron and Steel Development Document (Volumens I - VIII); Regulations on Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources (40 CFR 60).

Hinweise für das Einleiten von Abwasser in eine öffentliche Kläranlage, Arbeitsblatt A115 (January 1983) der Abwassertechnischen Vereinigung e.V., St. Augustin.

Lärmschutz an Hochofen- und Sinteranlagen, herausgegeben vom Minister für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, 1982.

Lärmschutz an Elektrostahlwerken, herausgegeben vom Minister für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, 1982.

Technische Anleitung zum Schutz gegen Lärm (TA-Lärm) dated July 16, 1968, zur Allgemeinen Verwaltungsvorschrift über genehmigungsbedürftige Anlagen nach § 16 der Gewerbeordnung, übergeleitet nach § 66 des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes dated 15.03.1974, Beilage BAnz. No. 137.

Unfallverhütungsvorschriften, Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Bonn u.a. UVV-Lärm, VBG 121 dated 01.01.1990.

VDI-Richtlinie 2288, Blatt 1: Auswurfbegrenzung, Kupolofen-Betrieb, September 1971.

VDI-Richtlinie 2288, Blatt 2: Anleitung für Staubauswurfmessungen an Kupolöfen, August 1971.

VDI-Richtlinie 3465: Auswurfbegrenzung, Stahlwerksbetrieb, Elektrolichtbo-genöfen, January 1978.

VDI-Richtlinie 3887: Emissionsminderung, Gießereien, in Vorbereitung.

VDI-Richtlinie 2058, Blatt 1: Beurteilung von Arbeitslärm in der Nachbarschaft, September 1985.

VDI-Richtlinie 2561: Die Gesamtemission von Gesenk- und Freiformschmieden und Maßnahmen zu ihrer Minderung (Lärm), July 1968.

VDI-Richtlinie 2560: Persönlicher Schallschutz, December 1983.

VDI-Richtlinie 3572, Blatt 2: Emissionskennwerte technischer Schallquellen; Umformmaschinen, Schmiedepressen, October 1986.

VDI-Richtlinie 2262: Staubbekämpfung am Arbeitsplatz, December 1973.

VDI-Richtlinie 3929: Erfassen luftfremder Stoffe (Entwurf), March 1990.

VDI-Richtlinie 2058, Blatt 3: Beurteilung von Lärm am Arbeitsplatz unter Berücksichtigung unterschiedlicher Tätigkeiten, April 1981.

Verordnung über Arbeitsstätten (Arbeitsstättenverordnung ArbStättV) dated 20.03.75, BGBl I (Federal Law Gazette I), p. 729, 15: Schutz gegen Lärm.

Dreizehnte Verordnung zur Durchführung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes (Verordnung über Großfeuerungsanlagen - 13. BImSchV) dated 22.06.83, BGBI (Federal Law Gazette), Teil I, p. 719.

Verordnung zur Bestimmung von Abfällen nach § 2 Abs. 2 des Abfallgesetzes dated April 3, 1990, BGBl I (Federal Law Gazette I), p. 614.

Verordnung zur Bestimmung von Reststoffen nach § 2 Abs. 3 des Abfallgesetzes dated April 3, 1990, BGBl I (Federal Law Gazette I), p. 631.

Verordnung über das Einsammeln und Befördern sowie über die Überwachung von Abfällen und Reststoffen dated April 3, 1990, BGBl I (Federal Law Gazette I), p. 648.

Verordnung über gefährliche Stoffe (Gefahrstoffverordnung GefStoffV) dated 26. August 1986, BGBl I (Federal Law Gazette I), p. 1470 in the version dated. August 23, 1990, BGBl I, p. 790.

Scientific / technical papers

Abwassertechnische Vereinigung: Lehr- und Handbuch der Abwassertechnik, Band VI, Industrieabwässer mit anorganischen Inhaltsstoffen, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften, Berlin 1985.

Aichinger, H.M., Borgsschulte, B., Britz, H., Held, B., Meyer, O., Strohschein, H.: Stand des primärenergiesparenden Konvertereinsatzes in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Stahl u. Eisen 108, 1988, No. 13, p. 645 - 654.

Anonym: Die neue Entstaubungsanlage im Oxygenstahlwerk Beeckerwerth der Thyssen Stahl AG, Stahl u. Eisen 110, 1990, No. 4, p. 137.

Baum, J.P., Gerhardt, J.W.: Abgasreinigungsanlagen in der Eisen- und Stahlindustrie und ihre Kosten. in: Stand und Entwicklung der Anlagentechnik im Eisenhüttenwesen, Haus der Technik-Veröffentlichung No. 369, Essen.

Bogdandy, L., Nieder, W., Schmidt, G., Schroer, U.: Die Schmelzreduktion von Eisenerz nach dem Corex-Verfahren im kraftwirtschaftlichen Verbund, Stahl u. Eisen 109, 1989, No. 9, p. 445 - 452.

Buckel, M., Kersting, K., Kister, H., Lüngen, H.: Neue Entwicklungen bei der Sinterherstellung, Stahl u. Eisen 110, 1990, No. 2, p. 43 - 51.

Direktreduktion von Eisenerz, Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf, 1976.

Dreyhaupt, F.J.: Handbuch für Immissionsschutzbeauftragte, Verlag TÜV Rheinland, Cologne, 1981.

Fischer, B., Rüffer, H., Düppers, W., Nagels, Gl., Knorre, H.: Entgiftung cyanidhaltigen Gichtgaswaschwassers von Hochöfen, Zeitschrift für Wasser- und Abwasser-Forschung 14, 1981, No. 5/6, p. 210 - 217.

Fleischer, G.: Abfallvermeidung in der Metallindustrie, EF-Verlag für Energie- u. Umwelttechnik GmbH, Berlin, 1989.

Geiseler, J., Drissen, P., Treppenschuh, H.: Metallurgische Verwertung von Stauben und Schlämmen der Stahlindustrie, Stahl u. Eisen 109, 1989, No. 7, p. 359 -365.

Gemeinfaßliche Darstellung des Eisenhüttenwesens, Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf, 1971.

Grebe, K., Grützner, G., Lehmkühler, H.J., Schmauch, H.: Die Metallurgie der Direktreduktion von Hüttenreststoffen nach dem Inmetco-Verfahren, Stahl u. Eisen 110, 1990, No. 7, p. 99 - 106.

Grützmacher, K., de Haas, H., Mohnkern, H., Ulrich, K., Kahnwald, H.: Staubunterdrückung in Hochofengießhallen, Stahl u. Eisen 111, 1991, No. 3, p. 51 - 56.

Haering, H.U.; Polthier, K.: Geräuschemission und Lärmminderung von Gesenkschmieden, Stahl u. Eisen 108, 1988, No. 4, p. 179 - 184.

Haering, H.U.; Möllers, K.H.; Neugebauer, G.; Polthier, K.: Lärmminderung durch Einhausung von Lichtbogenöfen, Stahl u. Eisen 109, 1989, No. 7, p. 343 -349.

Haucke, M., Theobold, W.: Behandlung und Aufbereitung von Stäuben und Schlämmen in der Stahlindustrie, Gewässerschutz-Wasser-Abwasser, Aachen, Bd. 21, 1976, p. 511 - 54.

Kaas, W.: Handhabung von Walzzunderschlamm, Stahl u. Eisen 101, 1981, p. 963 -965.

Krumm, W., Fett, N., Pöttken, H,. Strohschein, H.: Optimierung der Energieverteilung im integrierten Hüttenwerk, Stahl u. Eisen 108, 1988, No. 22, p. 1097 - 1106.

Kühn, M., Haucke, M.: Erfahrungen bei der Behandlung und Verwertung von Stahlwerksstäuben and -schlämmen, Stahl u. Eisen 101, 1981, p. 701 - 705.

Lange, M., Minimierung der Dioxin- und Furanemissionen aus Abfall -verbrennungsanlagen, TÜ 32, 1991, No. 3, p. E35 - E40.

Lärmemission und Lärmminderung an Elektrolichtbogenöfen, Verbesserung des Gesundheitsschutzes für die Belegschaft. Bericht No. 809 des Betriebs -forschungsinstituts Düsseldorf.

Lärmquellen der Eisen- und Metallindustrie, Ed.: Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Lärmbekämpfung, Mainz, 1973.

Meinck, F.; Stooff, H.; Kohlschütter, H.: Industrie-Abwässer, Stuttgart, Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1968, 4. Aufl.

Ministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales des Landes NW: Luftreinhalteplan Ruhrgebiet West, 1. Fortschreibung, 1984 - 1988, Düsseldorf, 1985.

Philipp, J.A. et al: Umweltschutz in der Stahlindustrie, Entwicklungsstand -Anforderungen - Grenzen, Stahl u. Eisen 107, 1987, No. 11, p. 507 - 514.

Philipp, J.A., Maas, H.: Abfallwirtschaft in einem Hüttenwerk, Stahl u. Eisen 104, 1984, p. 403 - 407.

Rat von Sachverständigen für Umweltfragen: Umweltgutachten 1987, Verlag W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart.

Rat von Sachverständigen für Umweltfragen: Sondergutachten Altlasten 1989, Sondergutachten Abfallwirtschaft 1990, Verlag Metzler-Poeschel, Stuttgart.

Reichelt, W.; Kapellner, W.; Steffen, R.: Endabmessungsnahe Herstellung von Flachprodukten, Stahl u. Eisen 108, 1988, No. 9, p. 409 - 417.

Schallschutz in Gießereien, Teil 1: Beschreibung von Gießereien und Zusammenstellung von vorhandenen Erkenntnissen über das Geräuschemissions- und Immissionsverhalten, Studie des TÜV Rheinland im Auftrag des Ministers für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, 1983.

Schmidt, H.: Schalltechnisches Taschenbuch, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1984.

Steffen, R., Lüngen, H.: Stand der Direktreduktion von Eisenerzen zu Eisenschwamm, Stahl u. Eisen 108, 1988. No. 7, p. 339 - 343.

Umweltbundesamt [German Federal Environmental Agency]: Altanlagereport 1986, Umweltbundesamt Berlin, 1986.

Umweltbundesamt [German Federal Environmental Agency] : Jahresbericht 1988, 1989 und 1990, Umweltbundesamt Berlin.

Umweltbundesamt [German Federal Environmental Agency]: Checklisten zur Prüfung der Umwelterheblichkeit raumbedeutsamer Vorhaben "Metallverarbeitende Industrie". UBA-FB 87-039, Werbung und Vertrieb Verlag, Berlin 1988.

VDI-Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft: Schwermetalle in der Umwelt, Düsseldorf, 1984.

Vigder, I.: Wasserkreisläufe für die Stahlindustrie, Stahl u. Eisen 103, 1983, p. 1195 -1197.

Wischmann, G.: Geräuschemission von Schmiedepressen und Möglichkeiten zur Lärmminderung, Schriftenreihe der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz [German Federal Institute for Occupational Health and Safety], Dortmund, 1984, Heft Fb 393.

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