3. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts

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This section describes underlying reference material which, unless otherwise indicated, refers to the situation prevailing in Germany. Obviously these rules cannot be applied wholesale to other countries without modification. The material is intended at least to serve as a reference where no national regulations are available. The INFOTERRA National Focus Points of the UNEP are a valuable source of information. These contain environmental information records for the member state in question. The reference service is free of charge. The Environmental Guidelines of the World Bank are an important source of application-related information, e.g. for dust emissions, waste matter and wastewater.

The Catalogue of Environmental Standards (Vol. III of this Environmental Handbook) also deserves special mention. This lists standards and limits for assessment purposes.

Regulations on the protection of persons from danger and injury in the workplace (worker safety, industrial medicine) are contained in the Unfallverhütungsvorschriften der Berufsgenossenschaften (accident prevention regulations of the employers’ liability insurance associations) and in their other publications such as "Sicherheitsregeln" (safety regulations) and "Richtlinien" (guidelines). Also worthy of note are the Occupational Health and Safety Guidelines of the World Bank and the Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety of the International Labour Organisation (ILO).

3.1 Air

TA-Luft (Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control) regulates the technical standards concerning pollutant emissions and immissions for installations subject to licensing.

The guidelines on maximum immission concentrations (MIK) published by the Association of German Engineers (VDI) lay down limits for certain air pollution levels. These are defined as the concentrations in the ground-level open-air atmosphere or in dust and the quantities precipitated on the land below which man, animals, plants and property are guaranteed to be safe according to the present level of scientific knowledge (see also reference to MAK values).

Also of importance are the EC Directives on sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates, lead and nitrogen dioxide (EC Directives 80/779/EWG, 82/884/EWG, 85/203/EWG), also the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for 28 chemicals on the basis of toxicological findings.

3.2 Wastewater

Discharge conditions for wastewater are laid down in the Wasserhaushaltsgesetz (Federal Water Act), the Abwasserangabengesetz (Wastewater Charges Act) and the associated Verwaltungsvorschriften (administrative regulations). These prescribe limits of individual pollutants for different sectors.

Annex 40 currently applies to metalworking and processing with direct discharge (discharge into bodies of water). This gives details of the maximum concentrations for COD18), BOD19), heavy metals, hydrocarbons, ammonium, phosphorous and halogenated hydrocarbons.

18) COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand
19) BOD: Biological Oxygen Demand

The limits for indirect discharge (discharge into waste-water purification plants) for COD and substances classified as non-hazardous are less strict. The limits for indirect discharge are detailed in the ATV work sheet Arbeitsblatt A 115 according to sectors. This work sheet is currently being adapted to the new wastewater management regulations.

For their projects the World Bank stipulates that the temperature of discharged wastewater must be no more than 3°C higher than that of the receiving body of water. If the temperature of the receiving body is 28°C or less, the temperature of the discharged wastewater must be no more than 5°C above that of the receiving water.

3.3 Waste matter

The definition of waste types according to Section 2 of the Abfallgesetz (Waste Avoidance and Waste Management Act) for the metal working and processing industry is contained in the Verordnung zur Bestimmung von Abfällen (Regulation on Waste Definition). A further designation of waste types according to code numbers is contained in the publication on waste types of the German state working group on waste Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Abfall (LAGA). Of relevance here are waste groups 35 (metal waste), 51 (oxides, hydroxides, salts) with electrolytic sludges, 52 (acids, alkalis, concentrates) with waste from surface treatment, 54 (mineral oil products) and 55 (organic solvents, paints, lacquers, adhesives, cements and resins). For electroplating and painting, refer to the regulation on waste identification Abfallnachweis-Verordnung. For motor vehicle and general workshops, see the regulation on waste oil Altölverordnung.

For the use and handling of special waste, refer to the three-volume edition of "The Safe Disposal of Hazardous Wastes" and the manual "Techniques for Assessing Industrial Hazards", both published by the World Bank; also the environmental brief Disposal of Hazardous Waste.

3.4 Noise

Accident prevention regulations are published by the employers’ liability insurance associations or Berufsgenossenschaften, and these deal with the protection of workers from noise in the workplace. The noise protection and information sheets of the Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, are important publications in this regard. The Association of German Engineers (VDI) has issued numerous regulations and directives concerning noise in the workplace, the impact of noise on the environment and noise protection measures. Guidelines on noise protection for installations subject to licensing (according to the implementing ordinance of the Federal Immission Control Act) and neighbourhood immission guidelines are contained in TA-Lärm (Technical Instructions on Noise Abatement).


4. Interaction with other sectors

Mechanical engineering and the production of semifinished products for machinery in other sectors represent a highly diversified capital goods industry, so there is often close interaction with other sectors. Interaction is not necessarily regional, on account of the high specific added value, therefore interacting environmental problems do not occur generally but rather in individual cases.

With mechanical engineering works, workshops and shipyards of a certain size, attention must be paid to the effects on infrastructural sectors. In this regard see the environmental briefs Spatial and Regional Planning, Planning of Locations for Trade and Industry, Overall Energy Planning, Water Framework Planning, Urban Water Supply, Rural Water Supply, Wastewater Disposal, Solid Waste Disposal, Transport and Traffic Planning, Road Building and Maintenance - Building of Rural Roads, Road Traffic, Railways and Railway Operation, Inland Ports, Shipping on Inland Waterways, Ports and Harbours - Harbour Works and Operations, Shipping, River and Canal Engineering.

There may also be an interaction with sectors covered in the following environmental briefs Surface Mining, Underground Mining, Minerals - Handling and Processing, Power Transmission and Distribution, Iron and Steel and Non-ferrous Metals.


5. Summary assessment of environmental relevance

The aim of this environmental brief has been to summarize the environmental relevance of mechanical engineering works, workshops and shipyards. Detailed investigations are to be made in each specific case as to the possible environmental hazards. Even small environmental problems which appear at the outset to be of marginal importance can, in certain contexts, result in failed projects or serious damage. Countermeasures must be integrated into the planning and execution at an early stage. From the point of view of environmental protection, mechanical engineering should involve a combination of precautionary measures and appropriate management decisions. Therefore training in environmental protection must be given high priority in every project. Workers should be trained in occupational safety and environmental protection. The management should be familiar with and apply additional precautionary measures (knowledge of suitable pollutant disposal methods or plant optimization with a view to environmental protection, e.g. choice of paints/solvents with low pollutant contents).

An important further precondition of applied environmental protection is the existence of effective waste disposal facilities, especially for problematic hazardous waste. Technical staff must also be on hand, e.g. to maintain filtration and wastewater treatment plants, the erecting and operation of which are described in the present brief.


6. References

Abwassertechnische Vereinigung (ATV) (Ed.): Lehr- und Handbuch der Abwassertechnik, Bd. I - VI, Ernst Verlag, Berlin, various years.

Abwassertechnische Vereinigung (ATV) (Ed.) Arbeitsblatt A 115, Hinweise für das Einleiten von Abwasser in eine öffentliche Abwasseranlage, draft of 22.03.1990.

40. Anhang zur Allgemeinen Rahmen-Verwaltungsvorschrift über Mindestanforderungen an das Einleiten von Abwasser in Gewässer, GMBI. (joint ministerial circular) 1989, Nr. 25, p. 517 ff.

Batstone R. et al.: The Safe Disposal of Hazardous Wastes, The Special Needs and Problems of Developing Countries, Vol. I, II, III, World-Bank Technical Paper No. 93, Washington, 1989.

Brauer, H.: "Die Adsorptionstechnik - ein Gebiet mit Zukunft", Chem.-Ing.-Tech. 57, (1985), Nr. 8, p. 650 - 663.

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (Ed.): Kühlschmierstoffe, Liste von Komponenten, in: Toxikologisch-Arbeitsmedizinische Begründung von MAK-Werten, Weinheim 1983.

DIN 45635: Geräuschmessungen an Maschinen.

EC Council Directive on sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates, lead and nitrogen dioxide (EC Directive 80/779/EWG, 82/884/EWG and 85/203/EWG).

Fischer, H. et al.: "Galvanotechnik", in: Ullmanns Enzyklopädie der technischen Chemie, Band 12, p. 137 - 203, 76th year.

Geretzki, P.: "Erkrankungen durch Kühlschmierstoffe in der Metallindustrie", in: Dermatosen 31, 1983, Nr. 1, p. 10 - 14.

Gesetz über Abgaben für das Einleiten von Abwasser in Gewässer (Abwasserabgabengesetz -AbwAG, BGBl. I (Federal Law Gazette I), p. 2432, 1990).

Gesetz zur Ordnung des Wasserhaushalts (Wasserhaushaltsgesetz - WHG, BGBl. I (Federal Law Gazette I), p. 205, 1990).

Gewerbliche Berufsgenossenschaften, Unfallverhütungsvorschriften: VBG 7, VBG 15, VBG 23, VBG 24, VBG 57, VBG 113.

Häusser, M., et al.: Kühlschmiermittelbestandteile und ihre gesundheitliche Wirkung", in: ZbC. Arbeitsmed., 35, 1985, Nr. 6, p. 176 - 181.

Hartinger, H.: Handbuch der Abwasser- und Recyclingtechnik für die metallverarbeitende Industrie, Munich, Vienna, 2. Auflage 1991 (Carl Hanser Verlag) ISBN 3-446-15615-1.

Hauptverband der gewerbliche Berufsgenossenschaften e.V.:

ZH 1/81 Merkblatt für gefährliche chemische Stoffe

ZH 1/194 Merkblatt für Chlorkohlenwasserstoffe

ZH 1/425 Kaltreiniger-Merkblatt

ZH 1/562 Sicherheitsregeln für Anlagen zum Reinigen von Werkstücken mit Lösemitteln (Lösemittel-Reinigungsanlagen)

ZH 1/566 Merkblatt für Explosionsschutzmaßnahmen an Lösemittelreinigungsanlage

Other ZH 1 publications.

Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften e.V.: Lärmschutz-Arbeitsblätter und Lärmschutz-Informationsblätter.

Koenigs, M.: "Schweißverfahren, Gefährdungen und Schutzmaßnahmen", BAD-intern 2/83.

König, W., et al.: Schadstoffe beim Schleifvorgang, Schriftenreihe des Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Forschungsbericht 427, Dortmund 1985.

Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, WHO regional publications European series: No. 23/1987.

Mahler, W., Zimmermann, K.F.: "Aktuelle Hinweise zur Einhaltung der verschärften Arbeitssicherheits-und Umweltschutzbestimmungen beim Verarbeiten cadmiumhaltiger Hartlote", in: Schweißen und Schneiden, 1986.

Mannheim: "Sicherheitsmaßnahmen bei der Verwendung von Halogen-Kohlenwasserstoffen bei der Metallentfettung", in: sicher ist sicher 7/8, 1983, p. 333 - 338.

Maschinenbau- und Kleineisenindustrie-Berufsgenossenschaft, Kampf dem Arbeitslärm 3, Lärmminderung für Betriebspraktiker, 1983.

Maschinenbau- und Kleineisenindustrie-Berufsgenossenschaft: Broschüre "Kühlschmierstoffe", January 1991.

Menig, H.: "Luftreinhaltung durch Adsorption, Absorption und Oxidation", Deutscher Fachschriften Verlag, Wiesbaden 1977.

Ministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und Forsten, Baden-Württemberg, Altlasten-Handbuch Teil 1, Stuttgart 1987.

Müller, R.: "Arbeitssituation und gesundheitliche Lage von Schweißern", Forschungsbericht Nr. 252 der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Dortmund.

Muster-Verordnung über Anlagen zum Umgang mit wassergefährdenden Stoffen und über Fachbetriebe der Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (LAWA), draft of 31.08.1990.

Rosenkranz, D., Einsele, G., Harreß, H.M. (Ed.): in: Bodenschutz-Handbuch, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1988.

Schütz, A.: "Öl-Aerosole an industriellen Arbeitsplätzen", in: Staub RL 44, 1984, Nr. 6, p. 268 - 272.

Seebohum, K.W.: "Beurteilung von Schweißarbeitsplätzen", in: sicher ist sicher - Zeitschrift für Arbeitsschutz, 9/85, p. 454.

Szedkowski, D.: "Gesundheitsgefahren durch Lösemittel", in: Württ. Bau BG, Mitteilungen 2/1985, p. 25 - 27.

TA-Luft, Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft of 27.02.1986, GMBl. (joint ministerial circular),p. 95 ber. p. 202.

TA-Lärm, Technische Anleitung zum Schutz gegen Lärm of 16.07.1968, annex to Federal Law Gazette (BAnz.) No. 137 of 26.07.1968.

Technica, Ltd.: Techniques for Assessing Industrial Hazards, A Manual, World Bank Technical Papers No. 55, Washington, 1988.

Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency (Ed.)): Handbuch Abscheidung gasförmiger Luftverunreinigungen, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1981.

Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency (Ed.)): Branchentypische Inventarisierung von Bodenkontaminationen, Forschungsbericht 03001, Berlin 1986.

VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure): VDI-Handbuch Reinhaltung der Luft, Beuth Verlag, Berlin and Cologne.

VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure): Technische Sorptionsverfahren zur Reinhaltung der Luft, VDI-Bericht 253 (1975).

VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure): Abgasreinigung durch Adsorption, Oberflächenreaktion und heterogene Katalyse, VDI Richtlinie 3674.

VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure): VDI-Richtlinien zur Geräuschmessung, Schallschutz, Schwingungstechnik: 2560, 2564, 2567, 2570, 2571, 2711, 2714, 2720, 3727, 3749, 3731, 3742.

Verordnung über die Herkunftsbereiche von Abwasser of 03.07.1987, BGBl. I (Federal Law Gazette I), p. 1529.

Zschiesche, W., et al.: "Neue Erkenntnisse zur Berufspathologie der Schweißer", Arbeitsmed., Sozialmed. Präventivmed. 20 (1985), p. 140 ff.

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