Appendix A: Tables

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Table 1. 2. Basic Data Relating to Pulp
Abbrev. Type Yield as a % of raw material Spec. energy consumption (kWh/t pulp) Rel. chemical use in relation to raw material Rel. pollutant output after process untreated, Rel. environmental impact after treatment (a)
Wood Annual plants Wood Annual plants Wood Annual plants Wood Annual plants Wood Annual plants
GW "mechanical" stock (wood pulp) 99-100 -- 1600-2000 -- very low -- low -- low --
TMP Thermo-mech. pulp 97-98 -- 1800-2400 -- very low -- low -- low --
CTMP Chem. thermo- mech. pulp 91-97 --     low -- medium -- low --
CMP Chem. mech. pulp 82-96 (70-80) min. 930 min. 600 medium (medium) medium medium low low
SCP Semi- chemical pulp 62-82 50-60 800-900 500-600 high medium high high low low/very high (c)
CP Chemical pulp 40-60 30-40     very high high very high very high low/medium (b) low/very high (c)
AP Waste paper stock 80-95 200-400 low   low/medium low

(a): state-of-the-art emission treatment
(b): noxiousness dependent on the type of bleaching chemicals: with or without chlorine
(c): dependent on the technical or economic feasibility of recovery or destruction of spent pulping chemicals

Table 2.2.1A Aqueous Emissions Pulp and Paper Mills Page 1
Sources/causes
typical in
sector
Substances
emitted
Impacts Reduction
measures (state-
of-the-art) in mill
Degree of
reduction
(%)
Open water circuits Large quantity of wastewater Large treatment plant, high energy and chemical consumption Closing of internal circuits To approx. 80%
Undissolved substances from various sources/ careless process control Organic fibre components and inorganic components (dirt), filler remains Turbidity, color, oxygen consumption,
smell
Division of process water flows, closing of circuits in mill, improved filtration Varies depending on production type
Dissolved substances from pulp production and recovery Ligno-sulphonates, other lignin decomposition products, crude tall oil etc., organic sulphur compounds, Na salts Marked brown coloration, oxygen consumption (in part difficultly degradable), odour nuisance Optimisation of process stages, leak prevention, recycling of leaked liquid Up to 90%
Pulp bleaching Decomposition products of lignin and hemicellulose, chlorinated organic compounds, Na and Cl salts Oxygen consumption (in part difficultly degradable), discoloration, toxicity Recycling of filtrates in plant, leak prevention, conversion to chlorine-free/ low-chlorine bleaching Chlorinated compounds up to 100%, others only slightly
Condensates Organic compounds (methanol, ethanol, uncondensed gases) High oxygen consumption , color, odour nuisance Liquor stripping in/before condensation, combustion or separate processing of stripper gases Up to over 90%
Table 2.2.1A Aqueous Emissions Pulp and Paper Mills Page 2
Sources/causes
typical in
sector
Substances
emitted
Impacts Reduction
measures (state-
of-the-art) in mill
Degree of
reduction
(%)
Chemicals from waste paper pro-cessing Printing ink components (in part containing heavy metals), dyes, processing chemicals, complex salts Turbidity, oxygen consumption, toxicity (with heavy metals) Closed circuit management (restricted), toxicity can be reduced indirectly by using printing inks without heavy metal components Oxygen consumption low, toxicity high
Paper manufacture Remains of chemical additives (dyes, brighteners, anti-foaming agents, retention and cleaning agents, fillers) Turbidity, oxygen consumption (toxicity, if additive toxic) As for waste paper As for waste paper
Coating plant Coating materials (latex, clay, emulsifiers, starch etc.) Turbidity, oxygen consumption Careful process management to prevent losses --
Wastewater from secondary installations Chemicals from water softening/ demineralisation, clarification salts etc. Salt content -- --
Table 2.2.1A Aqueous Emissions Pulp and Paper Mills Page 3
Sources/causes
typical in
sector
Substances
emitted
Impacts Reduction
measures (state-
of-the-art) in mill
Degree of
reduction
(%)
Wastewater treatment plant

A) In the wastewater: oxygen-consuming substances (lignin and cellulose decomposition), dyes


B) In treated sludge: organic and inorganic solids (incl. toxic components), products of bio-degradation

Turbidity, discoloration, oxygen consumption







--

Mechanical (sedimentation, filtration, flotation), biological (aerobic, anaerobic) and possibly chemical (precipitation, adsorption with active carbon etc.) wastewater treatment

Sludge
incineration
(possibly with flue gas scrubbing)

Colour: 95%, oxygen: up to around 60%, (pulp) and up to 95% (paper), colouring: up to 100%



Over 90%

Table 2.2.1 B Examples of Quantitative Emission Values Aqueous emissions, pulp production, untreated

Table 2.2.1 B Examples of Quantitative Emission Values
Aqueous emissions, pulp production, untreated
  Wastewater quantity m│/t BOD kg/t COD kg/t ss kg/t AOx kg/t TOX (TEF)
Wood pulp
TMP
CTMP
SC
C sulphate
C sulphite
1) 2)
20
8 50
50
225
450
1) 2)
10-30
15-28
315)
10-20 40-605)
250-500*
60-200* *
1) 2)


3xBOD
3xBOD
1) 2)
3) 4)


1-2 5
0-0.2 5
 
Aqueous emissions, paper production, untreated
Graphic
papers
Newsprint
MF writing and
printing papers
Industrial papers
Common wrapping
papers


25 80
70 180


0 50


1-2



0 3





0 - 3


10 40
30 80


0 10-30





--





6)

* : no chemical recovery
* * : with chemical recovery
1) with water circuits largely closed in the mill
2) with water circuits largely open
3) with chlorinated bleaches largely avoided
4) with chlorinated bleach
5) value range SSVL (Sweden)
6) printing inks containing heavy metals can yield toxic sludges
TEF Toxicity Emission Factor

Table 2.2.2 A Emissions into the Air Pulp and Paper Mills

Table 2.2.2 A Emissions into the Air Pulp and Paper Mills Page 1
Sources/causes
typical in the sector
Substances emitted Impacts Reduction measures
(state-of-the-art) in the mill
Degree of reduction
(%)
Raw material crushing and cleaning (chopping of wood, straw etc.) Organic dust Fire risk constituting health hazard Extracting of air and cleaning in cyclones (and/or filtering, recycling, burning or dumping of dust) up to 100%
Waste gases from digesters, steaming out of equipment and vessels Steam, turpentine, other HC compounds, SO2 Fire risk, odour nuisance, health hazard, acid rain Condense steam and turpentine, recycle turpentine, burn residue, recycle SO2 in the process, scrub residual gases 99 +
  TRS Odour nuisance Collect and burn TRS (cannot be condensed) 99 +
Fumes of spent liquor condensation plant Steam, terpenses, methanol, TRS Odour nuisance Collect and burn gases 95 +
  Steam -- -- --
  SO2 Acid rain Absorption in alkaline gas scrubbers, recycling in process 99 +
  NO2 Ozone formation In development: noncatalytic conversion 0
  TRS Odour nuisance process State-of-the-art process 99 +
Recovery boiler (waste gases) CO Health hazard Minimise by process 0
  CO2 Greenhouse effect Unavoidable, does not pollute global balance 0
  Dust Health hazard Electro-filters, recycling in process 99 +
Table 2.2.2 A Emissions into the Air Pulp and Paper Mills Page 2
Sources/causes typical in the sector Substances emitted Impacts Reduction measures
(state-of-the-art) in mill
Degree of reduction
(%)
  Steam -- -- --
  SO2 Acid rain Use of S-free fuel oil or natural gas; in development: wood and bark gas 95 +
  CO Health hazard Minimise by process management 0
Lime kiln (waste gases) NOx Ozone formation Reduction not yet state-of-the-art
(cf. cement sector)
0
  TRS Odour nuisance Minimisation possible by good process management 99 +
  Dust Health hazard Electric filters and recycling
in process
99 +
  Steam -- -- --
Steam boiler fired by bark or waste wood CO2 and CO Greenhouse effect, health hazard Unavoidable, but does not affect the global balance, minimisation by process management  
(waste gases) Hydrocarbons Greenhouse effect, health hazard Minimisation by process management as above
  NOx Ozone formation In development: conversion from non-catalytic to catalytic  
  Steam -- --  
Furnaces to destroy sludges and residues CO2
CO
Greenhouse effect, health hazard As above , minimisation by process management as above
  NOx Ozone formation Currently not state-of-the-art  
  Dust Health hazard Scrubbers, cyclones, dump  
Table 2.2.2A Emissions into the Air Pulp and Paper Mills Page 3
Sources/causes
typical in
sector
Substances
emitted
Impacts Reduction
measures (state-
of-the-art) in mill
Degree of
reduction
(%)
Fumes of bleaching towers, bleach preparation, chlorine transport Chlorine
Chlorine dioxide
SO2
Health hazard
"
"
Extract fumes and wash in scrubbers, return to process Up to 100
Waste air from transport equipment for raw materials and products Motor exhaust
NOx, CO, HC,
CO2
Health hazard,
atmospheric
effects
Catalysts, diesel operation with soot filters, use of electric vehicles where possible Up to 90
Paper dryer, paper machine (ditto coating and laminating machines) Steam -- -- --
  Organic
solvents
Health hazard Gas scrubbing, carbon filters with recovery, also use of water-soluble auxiliaries Up to 95
Processing of additives, waste air from vacuum pumps Steam -- -- --
Waste air from transport equipment for raw materials and products Motor exhaust,
NOx, CO, HC,
CO2
Health hazard Catalysts, diesel with soot filters, use of electric vehicles where possible Up to 90

Table 2.2.2B Emissions into the Air Typical for the Sector, State-of-the-Art, Limit Values

 

Table 2.2.2B Emissions into the Air Typical for the Sector, State-of-the-Art, Limit Values
Emission Source State-of-the-art
mg/Nm3
Typical limit
values mg/Nm3
Dust - Power boiler
- Absorption plant, Mg, Ca bisulphite and magnefite process
- Lime-burning kiln
- Smelt-dissolving tank
less than 50
less than 50


less than 50
less than 50
50 (ÍNorm)



50 (ÍNorm)
50 (ÍNorm)
SO2 - Power boiler
- Absorption plant, Mg, Ca bisulphite process
- Ditto magnefite process
- Lime-burning kiln with TRS burning
less than 50
less than 250
less than 250
less than 400
400 (Ínorm)
700 (ÍNorm)
300 (ÍNorm)
400 (ÍNorm)
CO - Power boiler
- Lime kiln
less than 100
less than 250
cf. TA-Luft
generally:
oil-fired: 170
solid fuel: 250
Organic C - Lime kiln less than 50 150 mg/m3
(TA-Luft)
NOx - Power boiler
- Lime burning kiln
less than 200
less than 900
400 mg/m3 HMW
(LRV-K, 1989)
(1,500 TA-Luft,
rotary kiln for
lime)
TRS - Power boiler
- Lime-burning kiln
- Smelt-dissolving tank
less than 5 ppm V
less than 8 ppm V
8.4 g/t BLS
5 ppm V (EPA)
8 ppm V (EPA)
8.4 g/t BLS (EPA)
Inorganic
Chlorine/
Chlorides
- Bleaching plant
- Chemical processing
Cl2 and CL: less
than 10 mg/m3
Cl2: 5 mg/m3
(TA-Luft
Cl: 30 mg/m3 as
HCl (TA-Luft)
HMW: Mean hourly value
LRV: Luftreinhalteverordnung (ordinance on clean air)

Table 2.2.3 Solid Waste Pulp and Paper Mills

 

Table 2.2.3 Solid Waste Pulp and Paper Mills Page 1
Sources/causes
typical in
sector
Substances
emitted
Impacts Reduction
measures (state-
of-the-art) in mill
Degree of
reduction
(%)
Raw material transport and preparation:
Wood
Bark
Wood shavings
Space required Burning for
energy
generation
> 95
Straw Binding wire " Collection,
compacting,
scrap trade
--
Pulp cleaning Knots,
bundles of fibre,
sand
"
"
Incineration for energy generation,
dumping
> 95
0
Quality Control Rejected product " Return to
process
> 85
Chemical recovery, removal of foreign ions Lime sludge*
or lime

Sulphate soap**
Ground water
pollution

Process problems
Recycling
in lime-
processing
industries,
dumping
Recycling as
raw material
for chemical
works
0 - 80


Up to 100
Waste paper treatment Iron wire,
plastic film,
string
Space required Dumping --
Waste paper de-inking Printing ink
sludge
(may contain
heavy metals)
Ground water
contamination
Incineration or
special dump
Up to 85
* in sulphate and soda pulp mills ** ditto for softwood
Table 2.2.3 Solid Waste Pulp and Paper Mills Page 2
Sources/causes
typical in
sector
Substances
emitted
Impacts Reduction
measures (state-
of-the-art) in mill
Degree of
reduction
(%)
Water and wastewater treatment Fibre sludge, inorganic sludge, biological sludge Space required Recycle or
burn fibre
sludge
Up to 85
      Dump
inorganic and
biological
sludge, under
certain
conditions also
use for soil
improvement
--
Wear of consumables Metal, plastic screens, synthetic textiles (felts), lubricants, cleaning agents Space required Return to
manufacturer
for recycling,
dump, burn
--
Mill maintenance Defective machine parts

Packaging material
  Return to
manufacturer
for recycling,
(scrap), burn
or dump
--

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