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Chlordane

DESIGNATIONS

CAS No.: 12789-03-6
Registry name: Chlordane
Chemical name: 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-Octachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-endo-methanoindan
Synonyms, Trade names:

Chemical name (German): Chlordan, 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-Octachlor-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-endo-methanoindan
Chemical name (French): Chlordane
Appearance: brown, viscous and odourless liquid (technical product)
Note: The technical product contains 60-75% chlordane isomers and 25-40% related compounds (mainly two heptachloro isomers (10-20%)). It is substantially the a -isomer.

BASIC CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA

Empirical formula:

C10H6Cl8

Rel. molecular mass:

409.83 g

Density:

1.59-1.63 g/cm3 (technical, 25C)

Boiling point:

not distillable

Melting point:

102-104C a -isomer

104-106C b -isomer

Vapour pressure:

1.3 x 10-3 Pa at 25C

Solvolysis/solubility:

in water: 9 g/l (technical product)

miscible with most aliphatic and aromatic organic solvents including mineral oils

ORIGIN AND USE

Usage:
Chlordane is widely used as a soil insecticide for termite control and as a household insecticide for the control of ants and cockroaches together with a limited agricultural use as a soil insecticide. It is used as a feed, contact, or respiratory poison. In Germany, the use of chlordane has been prohibited since 1971; in the USA its registration was withdrawn in 1976.

Origin/derivation:
Chlordane is manufactured by chlorinating hexachlorodicyclopentadiene which is obtained by Diels-Alder reaction. There are no natural sources of chlordane.

Toxicity

Mammals:

Rat

LD50 250 mg/kg, oral

acc. PERKOW, 1983

LD50 217 mg/kg, dermal

acc. PERKOW, 1983

Mouse

LD50 430 mg/kg, oral

acc. PERKOW, 1983

LD50 153 mg/kg, dermal

acc. SAX, 1984

Rabbit

LD50 300 mg/kg, oral

acc. PERKOW, 1983

LD50 780-840 mg/kg

acc. PERKOW, 1983

Aquatic organisms:

Rainbow trout

LC50 0.022 ppm (96h)

acc. VERSCHUEREN,1983

Fathead minnow

LC50 36.9 g/l (96h)

acc. VERSCHUEREN, 1983

ECLo 0.32 g/l

acc. VERSCHUEREN, 1983

Bluegill

LC50 0.022 ppm (96h)

acc. VERSCHUEREN, 1983

Insects:

Bees

Toxic

acc. PERKOW, 1983

Characteristic effects:

Humans/mammals: Poisoning may be due to oral intake, inhalation or resorption through the skin (readily). Chlordane irritates the skin and the respiratory tract. Symptoms of acute poisoning are vomiting, dizziness, tremors, disturbances of balance and convulsions. The toxic effect occurs very quickly: a case of death has been reported following the skin contact of 100 ml of a solution containing 25% chlordane before medical aid could be obtained. Symptoms are of longer duration with chlordane than with DDT under similar conditions. Chlordane is accumulated in fatty tissue, the liver and the kidneys. Chronic poisoning results in severe damage to these organs. Chlordane is suspected of having a carcinogenic potential.

ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR

Soil:
Due to its very low water solubility and its resistance to degradation, chlordane has to be considered as very persistent in soil. The average half-life is estimated at 2-4 years [ULLMANN, 1989] depending on the type of soil.

Water:
Chlordane has to be classified as highly persistent in water. Experiments in a sealed glass jar in sunlight and under artificial fluorescent light (initial concentration: 10 g/l) resulted in residues of 85% after 8 weeks. In addition, chlordane is extremely toxic to fish and bioaccumulates in fish up to 105-fold, thus entering the food chain.

Degradation/Decomposition products:
In the organism of mammals (rats), the elimination of hydrogen chloride and the formation of chlorohydrine and hydroxylated, hydrophilic metabolites of unknown composition take place.

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

Medium/
acceptor
Sector Country/organ. Status Value Cat. Remarks Source

Water:

Drinkw EC

L

0.1 g/l   single substance acc. LAU-BW, 1989
Drinkw EC

L

0.5 g/l   sum of pesticides acc. LAU-BW, 1989
Drinkw D

L

0.1 g/l   single substance acc. LAU-BW, 1989
Drinkw D

L

0.5 g/l   sum of pesticides acc. LAU-BW, 1989

Air:

Workp D

L

0.5 mg/m3 MAK Skin, suspected of carcinogenic potential acc. AUER TECHNIKUM, 1988
Workp SU

(L)

0.01 mg/m3 PDK Skin acc. AUER TECHNIKUM, 1988
Workp USA

(L)

0.5 mg/m3 TWA Skin acc. AUER TECHNIKUM, 1988

Note:
USA: Withdrawal of registration in 1976 [ULLMANN, 1989]
Germany: Use of chlordane has been prohibited since 1971 [PERKOW, 1983]

Assessment/comments

Like all organochlorine insecticides, chlordane is extremely persistent in the environment and is highly toxic to aquatic organisms and mammals. In addition, it has a bioaccumulative effect. Thus, the use of chlordane has been prohibited in several countries.


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