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Epichlorohydrin

DESIGNATIONS

CAS No.: 106-89-8
Registry names: Epichlorohydrin
Chemical name: 1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane
Synonyms, Trade names:
ECH, chloromethyloxirane, 2,3-epoxypropyl chloride, oxirane
Chemical name (German):
Epichlorhydrin
Chemical name (French):
Epichlorhydrine
Appearance:
colourless liquid with chloroform-like odour

BASIC CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA

Empirical formula: C3H5ClO
Rel. molecular mass: 92.53 g
Density: 1.18 g/cm3
Relative gas density: 3.2
Boiling point: 116.5C
Melting point: -48C
Vapour pressure: 1.6 x 103 Pa
Flash point: 26C
Ignition temperature: 385C
Explosion limits: 2.3-34.4 vol%
Solvolysis/solubility: in water: 60 g/l

soluble in ethanol and ether

Conversion factors: 1 ppm = 3.83 mg/m3

1 mg /m3 = 0.26 ppm

ORIGIN AND USE

Usage:
Epichlorohydrin is used in the rubber industry as a solvent and as an initial material in the manufacture of epoxy and phenoxy resins. Epichlorohydrin is likewise used for various types of organic synthesis.

Origin/derivation:
Epichlorohydrin is not found naturally. It is produced synthetically by way of the conversion of propylene with chlorine gas at 600C and hydrolysis with calcium hydroxide. The technical product always contains certain impurities.

Toxicity

Mammals:
Rat: LD50 40 mg/kg, oral acc. KOCH, 1989
LCLo 250 ppm, inhalation (4 h) acc. KOCH, 1989
Mouse: LD50 178 mg/kg, oral acc. KOCH, 1989
Aquatic organisms:
Goldfish: LC50 23 mg/l (24 h) acc. KOCH, 1989
Water flea: LC50 30 mg/l acc. KOCH, 1989
Algae: 6 mg/l toxic limit concentration acc. KOCH, 1989

Characteristic effects:

Humans/mammals: Epichlorohydrin is a toxic and carcinogenic substance with mutagenic effect. If it has been resorbed through the skin, the symptoms do not appear immediately. Acute poisoning causes irritation of the skin and mucous membranes, respiratory paralysis and damage to the kidneys and liver. Epichlorohydrin has an adverse effect on the lungs, the liver and the central nervous system. Chronic damage is indicated by allergenic effects and changes to the eyes and lungs.

ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR

Environmental accumulation is moderate. The toxicity is most pronounced in water because of the water solubility. Epichlorohydrin is a mobile substance which is found both in the hydrosphere and in the atmosphere.

Hydrolysis produces pronounced metabolic degradation. Incomplete combustion gives rise to the formation of phosgene.

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

Medium/ acceptor Sector Country/ organ.

Status

Value Cat. Remarks Source
Water: Drinkw DDR

(L)

10 g/l     acc. KOCH, 1989
Air: Emiss. D

L

5 mg/m3   mass flow 25 g/h acc. SCHMEZER et. al., 1987
  DDR

L

0.2 mg/m3   Short-time value acc. HORN, 1989
  DDR

L

0.06 mg/m3   Long-time value acc. HORN, 1989
Workp AUS

(L)

20 mg/m3   1978 acc. SCHMEZER et. al., 1987
Workp B

(L)

20 mg/m3   1978 acc. SCHMEZER et. al., 1987
Workp CH

(L)

19 mg/m3   1978 acc. SCHMEZER et. al., 1987
Workp D

L

12 mg/m3 TRK   DFG, 1989
Workp DDR

(L)

10 mg/m3     acc. HORN, 1989
Workp DDR

(L)

5 mg/m3     acc. HORN, 1989
Workp NL

(L)

4 mg/m3   1978 acc. SCHMEZER et. al., 1987
Workp PL

(L)

1 mg/m3   1976 acc. SCHMEZER et. al., 1987
Workp RO

(L)

10 mg/m3   Max. impact acc. SCHMEZER et. al., 1987
Workp S

(L)

2 mg/m3   1978 acc. SCHMEZER et. al., 1987
Workp SF

(L)

19 mg/m3   1975 acc. SCHMEZER et. al., 1987
Workp SU

(L)

1 mg/m3 PDK   acc. SORBE, 1989
Workp USA

(L)

10 mg/m3 TWA Skin ACGIH, 1986

Assessment/comments

Epichlorohydrin is extremely toxic in water and has been proven to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. Dumping or incineration should be avoided.


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