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Wood Energy Situation
Policies and Programmes
Wood Energy Data
Further Reading
RWEDP Focal Points

Wood Energy Situation

Pakistan is an energy deficient country. In 1994, about 54% of the energy requirements were met through conventional sources while biomass energy such as fuelwood, agricultural residues and dung accounted for the remaining 46%. Woodfuels account for 26 % of total energy consumption.

Some 20 years ago, experts from the Pakistan Forestry Institute (PFI) at Peshawar, brought poplar species from Italy. By now the poplar is widespread in Pakistan, contributing substantially to local wood industry and fuelwood supplies. Pakistan, with its limited forest area, has focussed on agro-forestry and this is remarkably successful. By now, 98% of all wood comes from agricultural land, and agro-forestry has greatly improved the woodfuel supply. About 1.5% of agricultural land has been put under tree cover and it is believed that the percentage can be tripled without a reduction in agriculture production.

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Policies and Programmes

It was stated by the Inspector General of Forests (IGF) that the present policy regarding the forestry sector was largely based on concepts derived from RWEDP. Implementation focuses on the provincial level. New loans from the World Bank and Asian Development Bank for the forestry sector in Pakistan are forthcoming. In 1995, the Office of the IGF was merging with the Ministry of Environment, which is expected to strengthen its position.

Pakistan is further known for its extensive World Bank/ESMAP Household Energy Strategy Survey (HESS, 1991-93) which is reputed to be one of the most expensive ESMAP studies ever performed. The study provided a wealth of information on the domestic sector, and the recommendations are now being considered by the Government for implementation. So far, little is known about fuel use in the small and medium-scale industrial sectors (SMI), though it is estimated that 80% of all employment in the manufacturing sector is in SMIs. These industries are reported to suffer from low productivity with their main problems being energy conservation and substitution.

One characteristic of studies like the HESS is that they do not provide data over a time frame and no follow up data has so far been supplied. The data obtained has gradually become outdated, with no updating or ongoing data collection or appraisal being undertaken. These observations indicate that an alternative approach, for example like the one adopted by FAO-RWEDP which aims to gradually strengthen local and national institutional capabilities, should be followed.

PFI co-organised and hosted a Regional RWEDP Training Course on Trade in Woodfuels and Related Products. Participants observed the lively woodfuel sector and agro-forestry practices in some of the SMIs. The case material presented, and possibly some additional material, will be developed by PFI into training materials on woodfuel flows. The institute is probably unique in the region due to its strong training regarding wood energy and it is also fully exposed to woodfuel issues. PFI has undertaken studies on the financial side of raising different tree crops, including the possible returns for growing fuelwood on farmland. Examples show that under prevailing conditions the profits to be made from growing poplars exceed returns from agricultural products.

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Wood Energy Data

Population (1996) 140 mln.  
Share of Rural Population 64.7%
GDP per capita (1995) in constant 1987 US$ 353
Energy Consumption (1994)  
Total Final Energy Consumption in PJ 1,902
Consumption of Wood Energy in PJ 520  (27.4%)
Consumption of Biomass Energy in PJ 902  (47.4%)
Wood Energy Resources  
Forest Area (1995) in 1000 ha 1,748  (2.3%)
Natural Forest Area (1995) in 1000 ha 1,580  (2.0%)
Agricultural Area (1994) in 1000 ha 26,510  (34.4%)
Share of Woodfuels from Forest Areas (1991) 12.6%
Potential Wood Energy Supply (1994)  
Sust. Supply from Natural Forest in kton 1,364
Sust. Supply from Forest Plantations in kton 596
Sust. Supply from Agriculture Areas in kton 15,371
Sust. Supply from Other Wooded Land in kton 640
Supply from Wood Waste from Deforestation in kton 4,598
Total Potential Supply in kton 22,569
Primary Wood Energy Requirements in kton 34,687

Population and land use data from FAO (FAOSTAT), GDP per capita from World Bank. Energy consumption data from various sources.
Potential wood energy supply estimated by RWEDP, based on available data for land use, wood productivity and estimates on availability of wood for energy use. For forest land, other wooded land and agriculture areas, the potential supply is based on average annual yield estimates, assuming a sustainable use of resources (Sust.: sustainable). Wood waste from deforestation refers to wood potentially available from natural forest land cleared due to commercial logging, expansion of agriculture land or other reasons. The estimates are based on aggregated national data, which can hide local variations, ranging from scarcity to abundance. For detailed calculations and estimates for 2010, see FD50, chapter 8

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Further reading:

Woodfuel in Pakistan, Training Material, Pakistan Forest Institute, Field Document 51, 1998
Regional Study on Wood Energy Today and Tomorrow in Asia, Field Document 50, 1997
Chapter 12 in Review of Wood Energy Data in RWEDP Member Countries, Field Document 47, 1997
Proceedings of The National Workshop on Woodfuel Trade in Pakistan, Peshawar, RWEDP Report No. 35, 1997
Proceedings of The National Workshop on Wood-Based Energy Systems for Rural Industries and Village Applications, Peshawar, Pakistan, RWEDP Report No. 31, 1997
Report Woodfuel Flows: An overview of four studies, RWEDP Report No. 30, 1997
Marketing of Woodfuels in Peshawar City, A Case Study - Pakistan, Field Document 38, 1993
Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce. Its Production, Management and Use - Pakistan, Field Document 29, 1991
Trees and Fuelwood from Non-Forest Lands - Pakistan, Field Document 22, 1989
Dalbergia Sissoo, Roxb., Its Production, Management and Utilization in Pakistan, Field Document 21, 1989
Acacia Nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Del., Its Production, Management and Utilization - Pakistan, Field Document 20, 1989
Wood Based Energy System in Rural Industries and Village Applications - Pakistan, Field Document 13, 1989
Energy Plantations for Marginal and Problematic Lands - Pakistan, Field Document 5, 1987

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RWEDP Focal Points in Pakistan

Focal points are the main contacts for RWEDP in a member country. Generally, in each country, there is one focal point in the energy sector, and one in the forestry sector.

Inspector General of Forest
Ministry of Environment
Local Government and Rural Development
TEL: 92-51-9205281
FAX: 92-51-9202211
Pakistan Council of Appropriate Technology
Ministry of Science and Technology
PO Box 1306, Islamabad
TEL: 92-51-9201290
FAX: 92-51-9202073
Chief Energy Wing
Planning and Development Division
Shalimar Plaza Blue Area
TEL: 92-51-9220725
FAX: 92-51-9220724

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© FAO-RWEDP, 1999