Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11

Wetlands of Karnataka

Wetlands are the transitional zone between land and water, where saturation with water is the dominant factor. Karnataka is richly endowed with wetlands. Of the total geographical area wetlands cover 2.72 Mha, out of which the inland wetlands cover 2.54 Mha and coastal wetlands 0.18 Mha. The 682 wetlands in the State come under inland-natural (7), inland man-made (615), coastal-natural (56) and coastal man-made (4). Bangalore by virtue of its location, climate and rainfall supports a number of man-made tanks, especially built for various hydrological purposes and mainly to serve the needs of irrigated agriculture. In recent times, these tanks have been subjected to enormous pollution loads both from point and non-point sources of pollution. The spatial and temporal changes in the number of waterbodies were done with the help of GIS and remote sensing data. The spatial mapping of the water bodies in Bangalore district revealed that the number of waterbodies has decreased from 379 (138 in North and 241 in south) in 1973 to 246 (96-north and 150-south) in 1996. An overall decrease of 35.09% was attributed to urbanisation and industrialisation. The loss in wetland interconnectivity in Bangalore district is attributed to the enormous increase in population and the reclamation of tanks for various developmental activities. Analyses of Madivala and Bellandur drainage network revealed that encroachment and conversion has resulted in the loss of connectivity between Yelchenhalli kere and Madivala. Similarly the drainage network between Bellandur and Ulsoor is lost due to conversion of Chelgatta tank into a golf course. The loss of wetlands has led to decrease in catchment yield, water storage capacity, wetland area, number of migratory birds, floral and faunal diversity and ground water table. Studies reveal the decrease in depth of the ground water table from 35-40 to 250-300 feet in 20 years due to the disappearance of wetlands. Thus, the degradation of freshwater ecosystems is taking place by a variety of stressors. As a result, many aquatic ecosystems are in need of some drastic corrective measures or restoration. Restoration is the "return of an ecosystem to a close approximation of its condition prior to disturbance" or the reestablishment of predisturbance aquatic functions and related physical, chemical and biological characteristics. It is a holistic process emulating a natural, self-regulating system that is integrated ecologically with the landscape in which it occurs. This paper explores the remediation methods that can be adopted for the removal of heavy metals from water that flows into the tank.

Key words: Wetlands; drainage interconnectivity; remediation methods, restoration, wetlands interconnectivity.

Energy & Wetlands Research Group,
Centre for Ecological Sciences,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560 012.

Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10
Shankar P. Hosmani

Various methods have been employed for classification and conservation of lakes and to indicate their trophic status. The most commonly and widely used method is based on productivity while the frequently used biomass related trophic state index (TSI) is that of Garlson (1977). This index requires minimum date and uses algal biomass as the basis for Trophic state classification, including three variables, Chlorophyll pigments (CA), Secchi's Depth (SD) and total phosphorus (TP). Because TP often correlates with transperency, a doubling of the TP often corresponds to a halving of SD. Chlorophyll pigments double every 7 units. The range of the index is from approximately zero to 100 and has the advantage over the use of raw variables. The three variables are integrated by linear regression models. Chlorophyll is given highest priority because it is the most accurate of the three at predicting algal biomass.

TSI = (TSI (TP) + TSI (CA) + TSI (SD) / 3

A range between 40 – 50 is usually associated with mesotrophy (moderate productivity); values greater than 50 are associated with eutrophy (high productivity), values less than 40 are associated with oligotrophy (low productivity).The TSI was applied to 15 lakes in Mysore city. The relative ranking of the average TSI indicated that 5 lakes were mesotrophic, 4 were eutrophic, 3 were hypertrophic and 3 were hypereutrophic. Phosphours is commonly the growth limiting nutrient for algae, chlorophyll can be an estimate of algae on surfaces; Secchi disc depth is a measure of the transparency of water, which is a function of the density of varying algal populations and other suspended sediments. The Trophic State Index gains importance when it can be correlated with specific events within the water body. Of the 15 lakes, 5 are grouped as mesotrophic and attributes to water being moderately clean, increasing probability of hypolimnetic anoxia during summer; the 4 eutrophic lakes attribute to anoxic hypolimnia, with possible macrophytic problems. The remaining lakes have TSI values above 80 indicating hypereutrophic nature, which can be attributed to light limited productivity, algal scums and macrophytes high with little or no oxygen. Trophic State Index of Carlson (1977) serves as an important index in classification and conservation of lake ecosystems.

Visiting Professor,
Mahajana First Grade College,
Jayalakshmipuram ,
Mysore- 57006

Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

Water Bird Diversity at the Tanks of North Bangalore

Harish Bhat#, Manjunath P*, Pramod Subbarao$


Wetlands are lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface, or the land is covered by shallow water. Though in the past these areas were considered unproductive and unhealthy “wastelands”, over the past two decades there has been a growing awareness of their value. Wetlands are not only a source of food and fuel to the numerous communities dependent on them for subsistence but are also of immense importance. Urban wetlands through the ages have been the lifeline of most cities in India . They were preserved and looked after by the people as their main source of water supply for drinking and irrigation. These wetlands are found all over the country and are either natural or built by people. Over the years, they have gradually depleted, leading to a number of problems in urban areas such as flooding, water scarcity and water logging.

Karnataka State had about 44,000 man-made wetlands constructed over centuries beginning with the Vijayanagara Dynasty, of which there are only 36,969 wetlands. Once critical resources for supporting paddy and other irrigated crops, especially in the Maidan areas, these wetlands had bad times with the coming in of large-scale irrigation projects over the last century. Most of these tanks were haven for resident as well as migratory water birds and other dependent birds. Bangalore alone had 400 tanks but their rapid degradation over the last three decades has left only 130 tanks, of which only 80 are in good condition. In spite of these, there are quite good number of winged visitors arriving to most of these tanks during winter.

Materials and Methods

The water bird census was being conducted at the respective tanks between 7 am and 10 am . The numbers of these birds were counted using binocular and spotting scope.

Survey programme

Every year annual water bird count is conducted between 5th and 26th of January (as most of the migratory birds would have already arrived during this period) to understand the bird migration, number of birds arriving, change in the arrival of bird species and the tank condition. This would give a broad picture on the current condition of the tanks and the dependent birds. The annual water bird count was being conducted by our group in the tanks of North of Bangalore since five years. About 11 tanks that are situated in the North of Bangalore were considered for the water bird census. Ardeshanahalli, Doddatumkur, Hebbal, Hesaraghatta, Jakkur,
Kolthur, Madhurekere, Nagavara, Puttenahalli, Singnayakanahalli and Yelahanka were the tanks spread over the north of Bangalore with varied uniqueness in terms of bird diversity and problems.

These tanks were surveyed documenting the tank condition, other activities in the tank region, the water birds and the water dependent birds along with their numbers.

Results and discussion

From the year 2001 the water birds were in good number in all the tanks as they were with sufficient water and good fish population too. About 42 species of water birds and water dependent bird species were documented during the census. In Hesaraghatta tank alone, about more than 2000 water birds of 29 species were documented. It was painful to notice about 10 bird traps at the Hesaraghatta tank bed for trapping White necked and Painted Storks.The nearby villagers explained that atleast 10 to 15 storks were poached every week during their arrival and the meat were sold in local market. Later, we destroyed these traps and informed the Forest officials to take strigent action against the poachers. Hebbal and Puttenahalli tanks also harbored about 40 species of water birds totaling to more than 400 individuals respectively. Totally more than 5000 birds were documented each year from all the 11 tanks of north Bangalore .

But in the year 2004, due to acute drought, seven of these eleven tanks were in a bad shape being totally dried up. These dried tanks were used for grazing cattle and temporary vehicle parking place! The winged visitors had to be dependent on the remaining 4 tanks (Puttenahalli, Nagavara, Madhurekere and Hebbal) that had little water. Puttenahalli tank housed lot of birds including Painted Storks ( Mycteria leucocephala ), Open-billed Storks ( Anastomus oscitans ) and a few Spot-billed Pelicans ( Pelecanus philippensis ) in addition to many other water birds. Despite being a drought year, this water body had water, thanks to the efforts of Lake Development Authority in taking necessary steps to conserve water at this lake. Nagavara Tank that was earlier dry owing to the desiltation programme, now had water and attracted many water birds. Previous year, Madhurekere had about 190 Painted Storks and other birds such as Spoon Bill ( Platalea leucorodia ), White Ibis ( Threskiornis melanocephalus ), Grey Heron ( Ardea cinerea ), Black Winged Stilt ( Himantopus himantopus ), Sandpiper, River Tern ( Sterna aurantia ), Pin-tailed Duck ( Anas acuta ), Spot-billed Duck( Anas poecilorhyncha ) and others was bone dry. It was disheartening that there were no Egret or even Pond Heron. Hebbal Tank was as usual rich with Pin Tailed Duck, Spot-billed Duck, Common Pochard (Aythya ferina ), Garganey Teal (Anas querquedula ), Sandpiper, Black Winged Stilt, River Tern, Grey Heron, Purple Heron ( Ardea purpurea ) etc. Jakkur Tank had interestingly Grey Heron, Spot-billed Duck, Pin-tailed Duck, Common Pochard, Egret, etc. The last one, which we surveyed, was Hesaraghatta Tank, which was having good amount of water last year and housed a lot of birds was now completely dry. The locals opined that the lake was totally dry for the first time.In the year 2003, we could observe huge number of White-necked Stork ( Ciconia episcopus ), Painted Stork, Grey Heron and other water birds in good number.

The year 2005 was fair enough for the winged visitors as the tank condition were better with sufficient water, and thus getting back most of the birds to the garden city. Traditionally community based organizations were protecting the catchments, and of regular maintenance including desilting these tanks. With lower population densities and little industry, pollution was no threat, nor had many exotic weeds been introduced. Many pressures on land have led to encroachment on tank beds. The famous Dharmambudhi tank of Bangalore has been drained to make Majestic Bus Stand. Such kind of ongoing changes in and around most of the tanks of Bangalore will definitely block the water draining pathways, which might in turn result in water inundation and flooding at such areas in future. The tanks have become sinks for sewage and industrial wastes. Exotic weeds have come to thrive in the organically enriched waters promoting drying up of the tanks. This process of degradation of wetlands has affected many elements of biodiversity as well.



We thank the Deputy Conservator of Forests (Bangalore Urban), all the forest officials of Karnataka Forest Department, the Chief Executive Officer and the Deputy Conservator of Forests from Lake Development Authority for constant encouragement and help during our periodical monitoring of all the 11 tanks of North Bangalore .

Checklist of bird species recorded during the survey:

1. Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis

2. Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo

3. Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger

4. Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis

5. Large Egret Casmerodius albus

6. Purple Heron Ardea purpurea

7. Grey Heron Ardea cinerea

8. Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii

9. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis

10. Median Egret Mesophoyx intermedia

11. Little Egret Egretta garzetta

12. Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala

13. Asian Openbill-Stork Anastomus oscitans

14. Oriental White Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus

15. Northern Pintail Anas acuta

16. Common Teal Anas crecca

17. Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha

18. Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata

19. Garganey Anas querquedula

20. Common Pochard Aythya ferina

21. Western Marsh Circus aeruginosus Harrier

22. White-breasted Amaurornis Waterhen phoenicurus

23. Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus

24. Purple Moorhen Porphyrio porphyrio

25. Common Coot Fulica atra

26. Pheasant-tailed Hydrophasianus chirurgus Jacana

27. Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus

28. Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus

29. Black-tailed Godwit Limosa Limosa

30. Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis

31. Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia

32. Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos

33. Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius

34. River Tern Sterna aurantia

35. Lesser-pied Ceryle rudis Kingfisher

36. Small Blue Kingfisher Alcedo atthis

37. White-breasted Halcyon smyrnensis Kingfisher

38. Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus

39. Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava

40. Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea

41. White Wagtail Motacilla alba

42. Large Pied Wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis


Ali S. 1996. The Book of Indian Birds. Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press, Mumbai.

#Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Malleshwaram, Bangalore – 12, Email:

*Green Cross, #173, 4 th Cross, 4 th Main , NGEF Layout, RMV II Stage, Bangalore - 94 Email:

$Asima Pratishthana, #2863, ‘Srinrukesari', Officers' Model Colony, S M Road, T Dasarahalli, Bangalore – 57, Email:

Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10
Emerging phytotechnologies for remediation of heavy metal polluted and contaminated soil and water

Contemporary world is facing problems with a wide variety of pollutants and contaminants (both inorganic and organic). Healthy soil, clean water and air are the soul of life. Often soil, water and air are no longer clean and pure; posing human health risks. The supposedly most pristine environment in Arctic circle and Antarctica are not even spared due to global transport of anthropogenic pollutants/contaminants of three major groups viz, i) heavy metals ii) acidifying gases (SOx), and iii) a variety of persistent organic pollutants that play a major role in global climate change. This presentation would concentrate only on inorganic pollutants and application of emerging phytotechnologies for environmental cleanup and restoration.

The contamination of the environment with toxic metals has become a worldwide problem, affecting crop yields, soil biomass and fertility,contributing towards the bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the chain. In the last few decades, research groups have recognised that certain chemical pollutants such as toxic metals may remain in the environment for a long period and can eventually accumulate to levels that could harm humans. Moreover, the numerous classes and types of these chemicals apart from the soil structure complicate the removal of many toxic metals from the environment. As an alternative, an ecological technological approach has been developed involving the use of plants to clean up or remediate soils contaminated with toxic metals. A group of plants termed as "hyper-accumulators" are the best candidates capable of toxic metal uptake, transport and accumulate.

A wide range of phytotechnologies have emerged as a feasible technology for environmental restoration. The wide reocgnitions for this approach is supported by the fact that it is considered to be an environmental friendly technology, safe and also a cheap way to remove contaminants, in some cases doing the same job as a group of engineers for one tenth of the cost. In this presentation, the upcoming phytotechnologies for inorganic pollutants in soil and water such as Phytoextraction, Phytostabilisation, Phytostimulation, Phytovolatilisation, hydraulic barriers for containment of groundwater migration, vegetative caps for containment of landfill leachate, constructed wetlands, riparian buffer zones and buffer zones for stormwater detention, environmental restoration for erosion control, halophytic (salt-loving) plants, environmental crops. etc are discussed.

The scope and limitations of phytotechnologies and hype for comemrcialisation of some of these phytotechnologies will be presented in this lecture.

M.N.V. Prasad,
Department of Plant Sciences,
School of Life Sciences University of Hyderabad ,
Hyderabad 500046 AP, India
Tel: +91-40-23011604, 23134509 (Direct lines),
Fax: +91-40-23010120/23010145

Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11
Status of Bangalore Wetlands

Wetland ecosystems provide vital ecological services such as recycling of nutrients, purification of water, recharge of groundwater, augmenting and maintenance of stream flow and habitat provision for a wide variety of flora and fauna along with their recreation values. This necessitates their sustainable management through appropriate conservation mechanisms for the security of future generations. Failure to restore these ecosystems will result in extinction of species or ecosystem types and cause permanent ecological damage, which ultimately affects humans.   1565 wetlands, including both natural and man-made water bodies, scattered throughout the Bangalore district in late 1960's. With the development of the city these valuable resources are perishing. The destruction of lakes by disposal of sewage dates back to 1875. Domlur tank, once used for irrigation, was constantly feed with sewage from 1875 and later proposed to drain in 1905 due to pollution. In last few decades rate of reduction in number of wetlands and area of existing water bodies has been accelerated and the trend still continues. Disappearances of the wetlands are mainly due to use of tank bed for various construction activities or inflow of the sewage and effluents. In Bangalore city, lakes have played a prominent role serving the needs of agriculture and drinking water during pre-independence era. But the burgeoning population accompanied by unplanned development has led to the drastic reduction in their numbers (from 262 in 1976 to 81 at present). The existing water bodies are contaminated by residential, agricultural, commercial and industrial wastes/effluents. This paper discusses the status of the wetlands in Bangalore considering the temporal aspects.

Energy & Wetlands Research Group,
Centre for Ecological Sciences,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560 012.

Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

The restoration, protection and sustainable use of Lakes is of utmost concern to the region's residents; officials and environmentalists at all levels are needed in India . Presence of lakes in cities is a blessed opportunity to the people for all kinds of activities. These dynamic ecosystems are, unfortunately, under the influence of daily human activities in cities. Landuse is a major threat to lakes in cities. When a city grows, the problems of lakes also grow. The restoration of lakes in cities must consider all scientific, social and administrative factors at every stage. In addition, individuals can also play a reasonably good role in restoring or rehabilitating a resource. This paper highlights the efforts taken by the author in bringing various authorities to put in all their efforts to restore the Kukkarahalli lake of Mysore city. A quickly dying lake has been brought into normalcy with some efforts. Experts have already identified several conditions that are necessary to reclaim the water quality of Lakes. The restoration methods may involve reduction of the external loading of pollutants and the intervention of wastes into the lake ecosystem. The following methods were adopted in restoring the water of the Kukkarahalli lake, in Mysore city:

•  Aeration of water by introducing boating

•  Improving the quality of water by rainwater harvesting and freshwater inflow through municipal filter cleaned backwash water

•  Removing the accumulated algae by manual methods

•  Cleaning the boundary conditions of the lake by engineering techniques

•  Stopping Idols into the water

•  Stopping of medical waste dumping into the lake

•  Increasing the security system of lakes to control human influence on lake waters

•  Increasing fisheries in lake waters

•  Bunding the lake peripheries for enjoying the environment of lakes

•  Bringing the approach of collective ownership and responsibilities to restore the lakes.

Removing of the weeds regularly by manual methods has been done. Removing of the unwanted silt to maintain the depth has been carried out. A bund-cum walking way has been established for the public to view the nature of the lake. Lakeside park has been developed, shady trees were planted.

New ways of drainage collection by rainwater harvesting from surrounding areas has been done. Removing of unwanted plants and weeds has been entrusted to garden departments. Planting of shady trees in and around the lake has been attempted. The lake at present has come back to normal condition and the salient features of different role played by various bodies and individuals are explained in this paper.



Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

A wetland is land that is seasonally or permanently covered by shallow water, as well as land where the water table is close to or at the surface. Putting an economic value on something as abstract as the ecological services of a wetland is a difficult idea for most people. More commonly, the open market puts economic value on society's goods and services. In the case of wetlands, there is no direct market for services such as clean water, maintenance of biodiversity, and flood control. There is, however, a growing recognition that such natural benefits do have real economic value and that these values need to be included in decision-making processes. This paper is an effort towards valuating Kukkarahalli Lake for the sake of conserving it for Mysoreans as well as for many including birds who visit Mysore as a tourist spot .

C/o Dr. M K Mahesh, 1008/5, University Quarters, Opp. to firebrigade, Kantharaju's road, Sarswathipuram, Mysore.

Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

The Dalvoy Lake in Mysore is fed by storm water as well as the drains from major parts of the city. The water that is entering into the lake through one of the major inlet drains is treated for solid waste. The lake water is primarily used for agriculture purposes towards the eastern side of the lake. In order to understand the water quality variations within the lake, samples were collected from the surface and also from depths ranging from 4 to 12 feet from the existing water level. These water samples were analysed for major cations, anions and also for some of the trace elements. The water analysis data was processed using a computer programme called HYCH. In this programme, numerical steps are adopted for the hydrochemical facies classification using the criteria of Handa, Piper, Stuyfzand and USSL schemes. According to Stuyfzand classification these waters are of Magnesium bicarbonate type. A major percentage of the water samples are coming under C3S1 type, when plotted in the USSL diagram for classification of irrigational waters and it indicates that the water is of moderate salinity and low sodium hazard and hence can be used for agriculture practices.

Key Words : Hydrochemistry, Lakes, USSL classification, Water Quality.

* Research Scholar, Department of Environmental Science, University of Mysore, Manasagngothri, Mysore-570 006. E-mail:

** Professor and Director, EMMRC, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore-570 006. E-mail:


Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Mathew Thomas* and A.G. Devi Prasad**

Lakes are dynamic inland aquatic systems that support and maintain a balanced adaptive community of organisms having diverse species composition, and the functional organisation of all organisms sustaining a unique biotic integrity. Study of these lakes provide the tools necessary for understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems without significant human influence, and the limited range of human activities affecting them. Lakes are the major life supporting systems facing ecological degradation today due to increasing deforestation, intensification of chemical based agriculture, industrial and sewage runoff, domestic pollution, unscientific and less monitored fish culture. These undesirable activities and unscientific utilisation are causing undesirable environmental problems like eutrophication, silt loading, changes in physico-chemical characteristics, thus threatening the biodiversity. Concrete steps should be taken to understand the complex interdependencies among physico-chemical parameters of the water, population dynamics of organisms, impact of external influences, so that awareness about its ecological values and dynamics can be created among the public. It will greatly enable in better ecosystem management and in sustaining its biodiversity and utility over long terms.

The investigation of physico-chemical environment of the lake ecosystem is an indispensable part of studying the lakes, because it influences the survival and production of its biotic components. Studying the physical, chemical and biological factors that act simultaneously and influence the plankton and other organisms enables in understanding the limnobiotic status of the lakes. Seasonal upsurge of different blooms has a close relationship with a few physico-chemical parameters like high nutrient level and warm temperature. Evaluation of the tropic status of the lakes also showed that some species of plankton could be used as efficient biological pollution indicators.

Physico-chemical analysis of water are done by the following procedures as mentioned in ‘Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water' (APHA, 1995) and using the methods mentioned by Trivedi and Goel (1984). The plankton community structure in the wetlands are elucidated with the help of Soyer's (1970) frequency index (f%), Bellan-Santini's (1969) qualitative dominance index (DI%), Shanon-Weaver's (1949) diversity index (H'), Pielou's (1975) evenness index (J') and Margalef's (1952) index of species richness (SR). Collection, preservation and enumeration of plankton are done using methods mentioned by Hosmani and Bharathi (1980). A significant relationship between the physico-chemical parameters and plankton are obtained by statistical methods like Pearson's correlation matrix, Cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis. Fishes collected and preserved are identified by using several methods mentioned by Jayaram (1996) and by using fish manuals.

Our goal of sustaining its biodiversity and proper utilisation of its resources can be best attained by systematic physico-chemical analysis, biological assessment and scientific monitoring of its resources. Proper resource utilisation and resource handling from these lakes are the ways to preserve and protect them. For sustainable management of these lakes, the areas that have its deliberation are environmental status assessment, environmental impact evaluation, environmental planning, environmental administration and environmental education. Sustainable development of the lakes should be focused on protection of lake along with economic development, emphasising more on prevention rather than cure of environmental degradation and implementing measures for better ‘intergenerational equity'.

Investigations carried out on the fish diversity in the lakes of Mysore showed that several endemic fish species had become rare and endangered, a few were threatened and vulnerable. In-situ conservation of endangered fish species was found necessary to conserve all endemic fish and the total fish diversity. Fish seed production and fish rehabilitation centres ensure conservation of endangered fishes. Many lakes are used for extensive inland fish culture, which are not on scientific lines. Rational management methods by creating awareness have to be followed for sustaining fish diversity and for sustainable fish production in these lakes.

Problem-solving methods, activity oriented methods like brain storming, case studies, field study, project works, role plays find much application as methods and techniques of teaching the learners at the institutions regarding protection of aquatic ecosystems and other environmental issues, thus creating an awareness about its importance.

* Principal, St. Thomas English Medium School , Vishweshwarnagar, Mysore - 570008

**Dept. of Environmental Science, University of Mysore , Mysore- 570006


Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10
Prasanta Kumar Behera

Any technological application that uses ecological system is the Ecotechnology (ET). ET is a multibillion dollar industry. The ecological world is the panacea of novel genes. Ecological diversity and novel products; molecular diversity; bioremediation and pollution control; organisms as factories for producing proteins, pigments, medicines, etc. through cutting edge biotechnologies is for societal transformation, sustainable development, food security and environmental conservation. Lake Chilika , technically a coastal or estuarine lake of Orissa is the second largest lake of the world. The services of ecosystem of Lake Chilika that produces eco-resources are critical to the functioning of our life support system. Mother Chilika contributes to our welfare and its economic value is much more than billions of rupees per year. Chilika regulates air, water, soil and food, fibre, fuel to the state Orissa. Chilika ecosystem goods (e.g. food) and services (e.g. recycling of resources) present a challenge for our education in conservation, restoration, management and development of Chilika lake-ecotech industries in our state Orissa.    

Prasanta Kumar Behera,
Ecotech & Biotech Research lab.,

Department of Botany, Berhampur University ,
Berhampur 760007, Orissa


Theme: 2. Lakes—Conservation, Restoration, Management Papers 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

Protection, Conservation, Eco-restoration and Management of tanks/ lakes as wetland habitats – challenges and mitigative strategies in the present scenario of the Bangalore metropolis


In the context of having our wetland habitats as functioning ecological resources, it becomes extremely important to review what has been happening to them and as to where, their status is headed to. The present times have definitely seen many kinds of eco-environmental threats facing the wetland habitats.

In the present scenario concerning an expanding metropolis like Bangalore , bursting with development and the addition of infrastructure, the wetland values in recreational terms especially as lung spaces also becomes an important consideration. Their positive role as microclimate enhancers is also very significant. It is also felt that they possibly have an important role in stabilizing the local climatic fluctuations uniquely experienced by this large metropolis in view of its altitude of ± 980 MSL and its topography. Further, the positive and negative health impacts linked to this altitudinal parameter is already familiar to Bangaloreans.

The above contextual background naturally brings in a number of conflicting situations. A wetland habitat with a natural biodiverse status, if existing (!), needs to be weighed against the threats of manmade disturbances, habitat destruction and others. Further it seems imperative that even when any measures attempted at ecorestoration or improvements towards these habitats are taken, their impacts also need to be viewed from time to time to realize if they have ecologically improved and at the same time are also serving positive eco-utilitarian needs for the general public.

Keeping the above background as the base situation, each of the aspects viz., protection, conservation, eco-restoration and management (or mismanagement) efforts are discussed. The time frame for the scenario is drawn starting from around just the pre 1970's to the present. The periods of less critical, critical, realization phase, restoration efforts and the conflicting situations (recent past, existing and possible future pooled together), are considered.

Some case studies to throw light on the conflict situations being locally faced ( Gottigere tank, Madiwala tank, Hebbal tank) would be presented. Further, the role of awareness and some action oriented involvements from the ecoliterate, young citizens enthused by the ecoliterates and other stake holders especially general public has been indicated to be very critical. The urgency of the matter is focused upon so that strong and forceful attempts are made to save the ITBT city's remaining wetland resources; at least, as relics of ecologically managed, biodiverse, public utility resources and as last of the lung spaces to enable the Bangalore Metropolis to avoid a suffocating future death.

Dept. of Zoology & Biotechnology, BHS First Grade College, Jayanagar IV th Block, Bangalore - 560 011;