Lake 2008 - Conservation and Management of Lake and River Ecosystems

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Ecological status of Central Western Ghats Rivers evaluated
using benthic diatom communities

Karthick B*, Mahesh MK# and Ramachandra TV*
*Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences,
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560012
#Department of Botany, Yuvaraja's College, University of Mysore, Mysore - 570 005
karthick@ces.iisc.ernet.in, maheshkapanaiah@yahoo.co.in, cestvr@ces.iisc.ernet.in

Diatom assemblage and chemical data were processed to estimate trophic stage and degree of pollution in several rivers in central Western Ghats. The majority of the rivers are unpolluted and some of them polluted; only a few were oligo-mesotrophic. The differences in the water quality of the rivers were reflected by different types of diatom community and also by the values of diatom indices. The analyses showed that ionic contents in water represent important environmental variables accounting for variations among sites and diatom community structure. Several widely distributed diatom species were shown to have similar ecological tolerances in India, compared to Europe and Africa. Most of the diatoms recorded were cosmopolitan and several possibly endemic new species. Diatom indices developed in Europe and elsewhere are useful for characterising water quality. However, there is a need to formulate diatom indices (including endemic species) relevant to tropical and subtropical regions focussing on India. This study confirms that the structure of benthic diatom communities and diatom indices can be applied for monitoring rivers in India.

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Beneficial uses of macrophytes for wastewater treatment and management

Prasad MNV
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India.
E-mail: mnvsl@uohyd.ernet.in, prasad_mnv@yahoo.com

In recent past all metros in India have experienced flash floods. Storm water is an important water resource. Storm water storage and treatment is an important topic for tropical countries. This is a neglected area in Indian scenario. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems, water harvest and water storage and management with macrophytes is a promising field of natural resource management. Constructed wetlands with are designed to intercept and remove a wide range of contaminants from waste water. These wetlands can save time and money by using natural mechanisms to treat non-point source pollution. Conventional wastewater treatment plants can effectively remove non-point source pollution, but intensive management is required. The usefulness of macrophytes as biomonitors of polluted environments and as bioremediative agents of urban storm waste waters with select examples are covered in this presentation.

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Contamination of Shivapura at Karihobanhalli Lakes in Peenya Industrial Area, Bangalore district, India

Aboud S Jumbe and Nandini N
Department of Environmental Science
Bangalore University, Jananabharthi Campus, Bangalore 560056
aboud.jumbe@gmail.com, nandini.sai@rediffmail.com

          The color in both the wetland systems was extremely bad ranging over 20 Hazen units. Shivapura- Nalakadarenahalli lake had higher levels of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) at 1838mg/L compared to 1779mg/L of Karihobanahalli lake. The total hardness for both lakes was found to be above permissible limits. This ionic trend followed Na+ > Ca2+> Mg2+>K+ pattern. The trends in anionic variations in the Peenya wetlands were also identical. The levels of Chlorides (Cl-), Fluorides (F-), Sulphates (SO42-), Phosphates (PO43-) and nitrates (NO-3) in Karihobanahalli Lake were characteristically higher. The average D.O value for Karihobanahalli Lake was at 3.1mg/L while at Shivapura- Nalakadarenahalli lake it was 2.98mg/L indicating serious levels of organic pollution in the lake. As for the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), the maximum was 36mg/L for Karihobanahalli lake while it was 21mg/L for Shivapura- Nalakadarenahalli lake. The minimum was 12mg/L for both the lakes. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) for both lakes was relatively higher with Karihobanahalli lake having a maximum of 187mg/L and the minimum of 80mg/L showing extreme variations on pollutant inputs. In Shivapura- Nalakadarenahalli lake the range fluctuated between 141mg/L and 90mg/L respectively.

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Circadian Variation of Physicochemical Factors vis-à-vis Zooplankton Abundance at Different Seasons in A Freshwater Lake, at Saheb Bundh, Purulia, West Bengal

Subhayan Dutta, Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay*, Tapan Saha**
Institute of Environmental Studies & Wetland Management, B-04 LA Block, Salt Lake City, Kolkata – 700 098
Department of Environmental Science, University of Calcutta, 51/2 Hazra Road,
Kolkata –700 019, e –mail id – subhayan_dut@yahoo.com
*Department of Environmental Science, University of Calcutta, 51/2 Hazra Road, Kolkata –700 019
**Institute of Environmental Studies & Wetland Management, B-04 LA Block, Salt Lake City, Kolkata – 700 098

Diurnal variation of the physicochemical parameters in an aquatic media is a matter of immense interest, both from the viewpoint of the water chemistry dynamics as well as the behaviour of aquatic organisms. Here an endeavour has been made to note trends of five parameters like Temperature, pH, Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, % Oxygen Saturation, throughout the day. The same has been observed in all three seasons that is Pre-monsoon, Monsoon, and Post monsoon. Results are based on 12 readings a day, at 2 hours interval and it has been established that almost all the parameters have followed the expected trends in day night cycle. In fact pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen and % Oxygen Saturation are positively correlated in almost all seasons.  Interestingly, Dissolved oxygen and Oxygen Saturation have followed synchronized ups and downs. ANOVA study also shows the extent of seasonal variation of all those parameters and they are in accord with the hypothesis. Present investigation also depicts that the zooplanktons are completely absent at the surface water at night hours while during daytime they are present as expected. So it might be a reason that light is surely acting as a limiting factor to these aquatic organisms. At the same time it won’t be out of place to mention here  that the physicochemical factors at night might act as factors influencing the distribution and abundance of zooplanktons. 

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Methane in the Ashtamudi Lake, Kerala, India

Zachariah EJ* and George Thomas**
Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, PB 7250, Thuruvikkal PO, Thiruvananthapuram –
695 031. India. Email: *ejzach@vsnl.com, **geonce@gmail.com

Wetlands are a major natural source of methane, a greenhouse gas with strong potential for global warming. Methane distribution in the Ashtamudi Estuary (Ramsar Site no 1402) in southern Kerala was investigated. Ashtamudi estuary has a water cover area of 5500 ha, and receives 1300 million m3 water from the Kallada river. Water samples were collected and the dissolved methane was extracted and analysed by gas chromatography. Vertical distribution of dissolved methane was also determined.  It is observed that the water is super saturated with methane, at all locations in the estuary. Average concentration of methane in the surface waters during post-monsoon was 314 nmol/l. The values ranged between 49 and 686 nmol/l. Higher concentration was observed near the Kallada river mouth and lower concentration was observed near the confluence zone where the estuary meets the Arabian Sea.

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Behavioral and Respiratory Responses of the Freshwater Fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) Under Quinalphos Intoxication
in Sublethal Tenures

Sameer G Chebbi and Muniswamy David*
Karnatak University’s Research Laboratory, Toxicology Division, Department of Zoology,
Karnatak Science College, Dharwad-580 001, Karnataka, India

A short term definitive test by static renewal bioassay method was conducted to determine the acute toxicity (LC50) of commercial grade organophosphate insecticide, quinalphos (25% EC) on the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus). Carp fingerlings wereexposed to different concentrations (6.64 to 7.88 µl/l) of quinalphos for 96 h. The acute toxicity of quinalphos was found to be 7.5 µl/l. one fifth and one tenth of LC50 (7.5 µl/L) was selected for subacute studies. Behavioural patterns and oxygen consumption were studied in lethal (1, 2, 3 and 4 d) and sub lethal concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 d). One (1/5th, 1.5 µl/l) and one tenth (1/10th, 0.75 µl/l) of the acute toxicity value was selected as sublethal concentrations for subchronic studies. The fish were exposed to both the sublethal concentrations for 1, 5, 10 and 15 days. Behavioral responses and respiratory rate were studied in experimental tenures. Fish in toxic media exhibited irregular, erratic, and darting swimming movements, hyper excitability, and loss of equilibrium and sinking to the bottom. Caudal bending was the chief morphological alterations during the exposure tenures. The behavioural and morphological changes might be due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Inactivation of AChE results in excess accumulation of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses leading to hyperstimulation and cessation of neuronal transmission (paralysis). The carp were found under stress but mortality was insignificant in both the sublethal concentrations. Considerable variation in respiratory rate was observed in both one fifth and one tenth sublethal concentrations of quinalphos respectively. An alteration in respiratory rates is due to the respiratory distress. This may be a consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by the fish against quinalphos stress. The impairments in fish respiratory physiology and behavioural response even under recovery tenures may be due to slow release of sequestered quinalphos from the storage tissues.

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Influence of Limiting Factors on Phytoplankton and Coliform Population in an Inundated, Isolated Wetland

Cini Oommen and Nirmal Kumar JI
P.G. Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced
Studies and Research (ISTAR), Vallabh Vidya Nagar, 388 120, Gujarat, India
Email: istares2005@yahoo.com

The relationships of phytoplankton with physical (temperature, pH), chemical (dissolved oxygen, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, chloride, phosphate, sulphate and nitrate) and biotic (total and fecal coliforms) parameters were analysed for the year September 2007 to August 2008 in a seasonally inundated, isolated wetland - Malwar which is situated between 22° 36’55.78” N and 72°54’58.01” E; about 7 kilometres from Anand, near Kanjari- Boriyavi railway station, Central Gujarat, India. Phytoplankton species belonged to Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae. Cyanophyceae members accounted for 68% of the total phytoplankton population, followed by Chlorophyceae, accounted for 23% and the rest 9% were the members of Bacillariophyceae and a single species of Euglenophyceae. ANOVA indicated significant variation in phytoplankton species richness between the two study sites (P < = 0.001). ANOVA indicated no significant variations for phytoplankton densities (P > 0.05) between the two sites study. However, significant temporal variation for Cyanophyceae density
(P < = 0.05) was indicated. Correlation coefficient matrix for different parameters was calculated.

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Concerns of Farming Community in Protecting Irrigation Tanks – a Study from Tiruvannamalai
District of Tamil Nadu, India

Sampath K and Sundaramoorthy T*
Society for Environmental Education and Conservation
51, Devadoss Nagar, Vibeshnapuram, Chidambaram – 608 401, Tamil Nadu
E‐Mail:sampml@yahoo.co.in
*C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre
1,Eldams Road, Alwarpet, Chennai – 6008 018, Tamil Nadu
E‐Mail:ttsmurthy@gamail.com

Tiruvannamalai district located at the northern part of Tamil Nadu State is comprised of six taluks viz., Arani, Chengam, Cheyyar, Polur, Tiruvannamalai and Vandavasi. This district is endowed with 1900 irrigation tanks with water‐spread area ranging from 5 to 767 ha. The present study was carried out during January and February 2005 to determine the prevailing knowledge and opinion of farmers on the utility values, management and threats of irrigation tanks. Tools namely information schedule, questionnaire and opinionnaire were designed and administered on 264 farmers from 88 tanks with three farmers each. Of the 88 tanks, waterspread area of 34 tanks is above 100 ha each and the total water‐spread area of all the tanks is 8492 ha. From these irrigation tanks 2.12 lakh aquatic birds belonging to 69 species were recorded. With the information schedule, complete profiles of sampled farmers and irrigation tanks were collected. The mean percentage of farmers who responded “yes” to two dimensions namely “Utility Values of Tanks” and “Threats of Tanks” under the component knowledge was 55.08% and 56.43%, respectively. Similarly, the mean percentage of farmers who opined positively to the three dimensions namely “Utility Values of Tanks”, “Threats of Tanks” and “Management of Tanks” under the component opinion was 79.17%, 80.46% and 76.07%, respectively.

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Quality of Cauvery River Water at Thirumukkudal

Kalavathy S, Selvakumar R, Sureshkumar P, and Revathy S*
P.G. and Research Department of Environmental Science,
Bishop Heber College, Tiruchirapalli – 620 017. Tamil Nadu.
*Department of Chemistry, Sudharsan College of Engineering, Pudukkottai-622 501
Corresponding author: Email ID: kalavathy55@yahoo.co.in

The impact of industrialization and urbanization is felt very much on natural resources especially water and air. Unless the quality is maintained the natural resources would not support human life. Hence, in this study, the quality of Cauvery river water was analysed at Thirumukkudal (Karur District), where many small scale dyeing units, sugar, paper and cement industries are located. Thirumukkudal is the confluence point of river Cauvery and Amaravathy. Beyond the confluence river Cauvery flows as “Akanda Cauvery” (1.5 km across). To assess the water quality, sampling was carried out at 4 stations designated as station 1 (Cauvery) and station 2 (Amaravathy) constituting the upstream stations and station 3 (Thirumukkudal north) and station 4 (Thirumukkudal south) constituting the downstream stations. The flora and fauna were also investigated. Among the physicochemical parameters of water samples collected in the study stations, significant variations were observed in the colour, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, TDS, TSS and alkalinity. All the stations revealed high values of total and fecal coliforms, which made it unfit for consumption. This is due to the open defecation in the river banks. The confluence of two rivers namely Cauvery and Amaravathy has brought about a reduction in the pollution load carried by river Amaravathy.
Rich biodiversity is observed in this area and this may be affected by various human activities such as water pumping, sand dredging, agriculture, sewage and industrial effluent discharges etc. Suitable remedial measures are suggested to conserve the water quality and the riverine ecosystem.

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Water Quality Index of Tungabhadra River Water Ecosystem near Harihar - Karnataka

Manjappa S, Suresh B*, Puttaiah ET**, Aravinda HB***
Chemistry & Environmental Science and Technology Study Centre, Bapuji Institute of Engineering and
Technology, Davangere-577 004, Karnataka, India. drsmdvg@yahoo.co.in
*Chemistry & Environmental Science and Technology Study Centre, Bapuji Institute of Engineering and
Technology, Davangere-577 004, Karnataka, India, sureshb_smg@yahoo.com
**Chairman, Department of PG Studies and Research in water harvesting and water Management, Kuvempu
University, Shankarghatta-577 451, Karnataka State, India. dretputtaiah@rediffmail.com
***Department of Civil Engineering, Bapuji Institute of Engineering and Technology, Davangere-577 004,
drhbabiet@yahoo.com

An aquatic ecosystem (habitat and organisms) includes rivers and streams, ponds and Lakes, oceans and bays and swamps and marshes and their associated animals. Aquatic ecosystem consists of mainly two types of ecosystems like lentic (standing) and lotic water (flowing) water ecosystem. The term lotic represents running water, where the entire body of water moves in a definite direction. Lotic ecosystems are the flowing water with a longitudinal gradation and characterized by temperature, organic and inorganic materials, energy and the organisms within a stream corridor. Tungabhadra River in Karnataka is an important tributary of Krishna River. It has a drainage area of 71,417 sq.km out of which 57,671 sq.km lies in the state. It covers a distance of 293 km in the state and is getting polluted due to rapid industrial growth, domestic and agricultural activities of the region. The River Tungabhadra is formed due to the confluence of two rivers Tunga and Bhadra. The rivers are always the victims of the negative impacts of urbanization. Impacts of sand mining, dumping of waste and sewage are the issues associated with the river Tungabhadra. The water quality index is one of the methods to analyze the pollution load in the river water ecosystem.
The water quality index provides information about the pollution load. The water quality and pollution load of the river Tungabhadra near Harihar, Karnataka was monitored for a period of five Years (December 2000 to November 2005). The quality of water assessed by measuring the water quality parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Alkalinity, Total hardness, Chloride, Calcium, Magnesium, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand. The mean values of water quality indices of all the seasons were recoded for three stations (S1, S2 & S3). The seasonal investigation has indicated that at station S1 the water quality index ranged from 54.88 to 69.33 in station S2 it varied between 70.68 and 70.75 and in station S3, it varied between 64.96 and 112.32 in different seasons of the year. Study conducted during the above years, indicate the increasing trend towards pollution and water quality index of the study area. The present paper describes the above study in details. The paper also suggests the need for periodic evaluation of water quality parameters as well as adaptation of proper water quality management practices with a view to protect the riverine ecosystem.

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Water Quality: Lakes of Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica

Pradeep Kumar
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee – 247 667 (Uttarakhand), India Email: pkumafce@iitr.ernet.in

The Antarctic continental margins are known for the diverse group of Lakes. Lake waters chemically range from distilled water to salt-laden brines. Thirty-eight Lakes at the Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica were surveyed. Conductivity was found to range from 5.50 mS/cm to 546 mS/cm, a variation of about 100 times. Ionic composition varied from 0.10 meq/L – 10.6 meq/L. Ca2+ was found to be the dominant cation and HCO3- the dominant anion in majority of the glacier-fed Lakes while in case of most inter-mountainous and all the grounding-line Lakes Na+ and Cl- dominated. Different Schirmacher Lakes were found to have sixteen water types. Among them Na+ - Cl- and Ca2+ - HCO3-types dominated. Results revealed that more than 50% of the Lake waters contained (a) alkaline earths > alkaline metals (b) strong acidic anions > weak acidic anions and (c) non-carbonate hardness > carbonate hardness. It could be concluded that even at Schirmacher Oasis, chemical characteristics of unaltered, unpolluted polar Lakes vary widely.

 

Theme 1 : Lakes and Rivers: Water quality, biotic resources, Conservation, restoration and management
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Natural Purification of Water from Nainital Lake: Water Quality Evaluation

Indu Mehrotra and Pradeep Kumar
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Roorkee – 247 667 (Uttarakhand), Email: indumfce@iitr.ernet.in; pkumafce@iitr.ernet.in

Water from the Lake Nainital abstracted through seven tube wells, located at a distance of less than 100 m from the bank is supplied to Nainital. Tube wells draw (a) Lake water after passage through the soil i.e. natural filtration and (b) subsurface water/groundwater flowing towards the Lake. Water samples from the Lake and five tube-wells were analyzed in monsoon and nonmonsoon periods from 1997 to 2006. Results indicate that the Lake water as such is not potable as it contains unacceptable levels of organic matter in terms of COD, coliform bacteria and nutrients. Coliform bacteria and COD have not been detected in any of the tube-well water samples over the years. Lake water, treated by sand filters did not conform to the drinking water standards. These investigations have led to the closure of the treatment facility and installation of two new tube-wells in addition to the existing five tube-wells.