Assimilation of Endmember Variability in Spectral Mixture Analysis for Urban Land Cover Extraction
Uttam Kumar1,2,3          S. Kumar Raja4          Chiranjit Mukhopadhyay2           T.V. Ramachandra1,5,6,*
1Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences [CES], 2Department of Management Studies, 5Centre for Sustainable Technologies (astra),
6Centre for infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning [CiSTUP], Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560012, India.
3International Institute of Information Technology (IIITB), Bangalore-560100, India.
4EADS Innovation Works, Airbus Engineering Centre India, Xylem No 4, Mahadevapura Post, Whitefield Road, Bangalore - 560 048, India.
*Corresponding author:


Variable Endmember Constrained Least Square (VECLS)technique is proposed to account endmember variability in the linear mixture model by incorporating the variance for each class, the signals of which varies from pixel to pixel due to change in urban land cover (LC) structures. VECLS is first tested with a computer simulated three class endmember considering four bands having small, medium and large variability with three different spatial resolutions. The technique is next validated with real datasets of IKONOS, Landsat ETM+ and MODIS. The results show that correlation between actual and estimated proportion is higher by an average of 0.25 for the artificial datasets compared to a situation where variability is not considered. With IKONOS, Landsat ETM+ and MODIS data, the average correlation increased by 0.15 for 2 and 3 classes and by 0.19 for 4 classes, when compared to single endmember per class.


Keywords: Linear mixture model; mixed pixel; variable endmember

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Citation : Uttam Kumar, S. Kumar Raja, Chiranjit Mukhopadhyay and T.V. Ramachandra., 2013, Assimilation of endmember variability in spectral mixture analysis for urban land cover extraction., Advances in Space Research, Volume 52, Issue 11, 1 December 2013, Pages 2015-2033.
* Corresponding Author :
Dr. T.V. Ramachandra
Energy & Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560 012, India.
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