Sector-wise Assessment of Carbon Footprint across Major Cities in India

Ramachandra T. V 1,2,3,*,  K. Sreejith1 and  Bharath H. Aithal1

1Energy & Wetlands Research Group, Center for Ecological Sciences [CES]
2Centre for Sustainable Technologies (astra)
3Centre for infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning [CiSTUP], Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, 560 012, India
*Corresponding Author: *Corresponding Author:
Tel : 91-80-23600985 / 22932506 / 22933099,
Fax : 91-80-23601428 / 23600085 / 23600683 [CES-TVR]

Citation : Ramachandra T.V.,  K. Sreejith, Bharath H. Aithal, 2015. GHG footprint of major cities in India, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 44 (2015) 473–495,
1.1 Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth
1.2  DCarbon Footprint
1.3  Carbon Footprint Studies in Cities 1.4  Sector-Wise Assessment of GHG Emissions in India: Review 2.1  Study Area
2.2 Quantification of Greenhouse Gases 3.1  GHG Emissions from the Energy Sector
3.2 GHG Emissions from the Domestic Sector
3.3 GHG Emissions from the Transportation Sector
3.4 GHG Emissions from the Industrial Sector
3.5 GHG Emissions from Agricultural Activities 3.6 GHG Emissions from Livestock Management 3.7 GHG Emissions from the Waste Sector 3.8 Intercity Variations of Carbon Footprint 3.9 Carbon Footprint: City and Sector

Scope For Further Research

  • Developing national level emission factors for different processes from various categories for which there are no country specific emission factors helps in improving the precision of such emission estimations. Data availability for category wise fossil fuel consumption (commercial, industrial) and for small and medium scale industries along with the waste water treatment data for different years helps in improving the values obtained from these sectors for a particular inventory year.


  • Based on the results obtained, policies are to be framed focusing on reduction of emissions from the targeted sector. For example, cities with higher domestic emissions, use of cleaner fuels like LPG, PNG are to be made mandatory and also utilization of solar energy for lighting and water heating purposes. For cities with higher transportation emissions, less polluting fuels like LPG and CNG may be made compulsory in vehicles like cars, auto rickshaws and buses, introducing more public transportation services and phasing out older vehicles. This helps the local authorities in drafting regulations resulting in mitigation of environmental degradation in cities.


* Corresponding Author :
  Dr. T.V. Ramachandra
Energy & Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560 019, INDIA.
  Tel :080-22933099/22933503 extn 107
Fax : 91-80-23601428 / 23600085 / 23600683 [CES-TVR]
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