Based on the survey, it was found that the per capita fuelwood consumption for cooking and water heating, which are the major end-uses of the energy consumption, is 1.2 tonnes/year. As per the data, some of the eastern and southern sub-basins are facing scarcity of resources and there is a large scope for energy plantations in the degraded forestlands. Viable alternatives like biogas will help in meeting the energy demand efficiently for the river basin. The analysis shows that about 88% of the total households have the potential to install biogas plants. At least 60% utilization of this resource can lead to fuelwood saving of 8840 tonnes annually. The estimation shows that in 119 villages, biogas has the potential to supplement the cooking energy of more than 60% of the total population.


We are grateful to Prof. M.D. Subhash Chandran and Prof. Niranjan V. Joshi for suggestions during discussions. We acknowledge the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited, Government of Karnataka and the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India for the financial assistance and necessary infrastructure support. We thank Shruthi for the assistance in literature review and Joshua D. David for proof reading the manuscript.