Decentralised Carbon Footprint Analysis for Opting Climate Change Mitigation Strategies in India
T.V. Ramachandra a,b,c,*                            Shwetmala a
a Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences [CES],
b Centre for Infrastructure, Transport and Urban Planning (CiSTUP), c Centre for Sustainable Technologies (astra),
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560012, India.
*Corresponding author:


Carbon footprint (CF) refers to the total amount of carbon dioxide and its equivalents emitted due to various anthropogenic activities. Carbon emission and sequestration inventories have been reviewed sector-wise for all federal states in India to identify the sectors and regions responsible for carbon imbalances. This would help in implementing appropriate climate change mitigation and management strategies at disaggregated levels. Major sectors of carbon emissions in India are through electricity generation, transport, domestic energy consumption, industries and agriculture. A majority of carbon storage occurs in forest biomass and soil. This paper focuses on the statewise carbon emissions (CO2, CO and CH4), using region specific emission factors and statewise carbon sequestration capacity. The estimate shows that CO2, CO and CH4 emissions from India are 965.9, 22.5 and 16.9 Tg per year. Electricity generation contributes 35.5% of total CO2 emission, which is followed by the contribution from transport. Vehicular transport exclusively contributes 25.5% of total emission. The analysis shows that Maharashtra emits higher CO2, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The carbon status, which is the ratio of annual carbon storage against carbon emission, for each federal state is computed. This shows that small states and union territories (UT) like Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, where carbon sequestration is higher due to good vegetation cover, have carbon status >1. Annually, 7.35% of total carbon emissions get stored either in forest biomass or soil, out of which 34% is in Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa.

Keywords: carbon footprint (CF), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon storage, climate change in India, carbon capture, renewable energy.

Citation : T.V. Ramachandra and Shwetmala, 2012. Decentralised Carbon Footprint Analysis for Opting Climate Change Mitigation Strategies in India., Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 16, Issue 8, October 2012, Pages 5820–5833.
* Corresponding Author :
  Dr. T.V. Ramachandra
Energy & Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560 012, India.
Tel : 91-80-23600985 / 22932506 / 22933099,      Fax : 91-80-23601428 / 23600085 / 23600683 [CES-TVR]
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