Small-scale decentralized and sustainable municipal solid waste management potential for Bangalore anchored around total recycle and biomethanation plants
H.N. Chanakya1,*             Shwetmala1             T.V. Ramachandra1,2

Total Recycling – the RMV-II Model

RMV extension stage II, of Bangalore is a high income group area with a mixture of residential building and few small shops.  BBMP is managing the MSW at this locality. The ward councillor was greatly interested in improving waste management system as it will give him political visibility, and at least one of the waste entrepreneurs also has political ambitions.  Some of the families were aware of waste and its environmental impacts, so they were very keen to start a proper management of waste and to make their ward as the first zero waste emission ward of Bangalore.  A 60 days project was started by NGO ‘Exnora Green Cross’ for 320 families of this locality.  The project aimed to establish a SWM system in the whole area later on.  The system would include primary collection with some gradually increasing source segregation (into organic and inorganic waste), storage and disposal of different types of solid waste in an environmentally friendly manner.  Waste was collected twice in a day, but evening collection was very poor since most of the families would refuse to contribute to the evening waste collection.  The central components of the whole system were the twice collection and separation of waste into reusable /recyclables (to be sold) and the composting of organic waste.  Trained waste collectors were appointed for door-to-door collection and for waste segregation.  Residents were motivated to store and hand over separated household garbage twice in a day.  Initially only 25 houses hand over segregated household waste, but within 10-15 days the number of house became almost double.   Everyday on an average around 2.6 kg fermentable wastes were coming from each of the families.  The fermentables (including food waste and garden wastes) were composted on raised platforms to ensure better aeration and lower smell.  This took about two months to convert these fermentables into compost.  With the progress of time number of composting beds was increased which had also increased the associated problems like smell and flies.  Although these problems were under kept to a minimum, the announcing of elections gave rise to political dissent and on the grounds of smell and the effort was to be stopped at least temporarily.  After 21 days this project was stopped by ward councillor fearing loss of his re-election prospects.  However, meticulous data has been collected as to the types and quantities of recyclables that were brought to this site.  As these were segregated and kept ready for sales, it gave an excellent record of the market value of the recyclables that were recovered (Table 5).   Based on this project information, economic costs are calculated for decentralized waste management with compost plant as given in Table 5.  Under the existing scenario, we calculate that with compost as the main product and in an enterprise mode and under conditions reigning in Bangalore the cost recovery period would be in the range of 4 years (Table 6, assuming 100% recycling).  This is however up to plan and may not be achieved easily.  However, when the recycling and recovery efficiency drops to 80% the project is in viable.  An additional source of revenue needs to be identified to make the project economic.  We then examine the conversion of the fermentables to biogas and expect that sale of biogas locally would offset the financial deficit projected here.

*Corresponding Author :
Dr. H N Chanakya,
Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore, India.
Ph: +91-080-22933046
E-mail   |   Sahyadri   |   ENVIS   |   GRASS   |   Energy   |   CES   |   CST   |   CiSTUP   |   IISc   |   E-mail