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IMPORTANCE OF LAKES AND WETLANDS

N.S.Thejaswi & Group
    Without food we can live atleast for 15 to 20 days. Whereas without 
    water, we cannot live  even for  half a day! Water is an  important 
    natural resource.It is helpful in many sources to humans. It serves 
    as a cheap means of  transport. Besides these  services, water also 
    has  some of the  biological  importance. It  is  essential for the 
    metabolic activities of many  organisms. But, unfortunately, due to 
    numerous  harmful activities, water is being polluted. What are its 
    effects? How can we  prevent this  depletion? For this  information 
    read the following article.
    
    
    
    
    
    



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EWSTORATION OF LAKES AND GROUNDWATER

Anupama Ashok
    I derive great pleasure in presenting to you my paper on restoration 
    of lakes and  wetlands. In the introduction you would get an insight 
    into the following topics:
      Formation of lakes and wetlands
      Major lakes and wetlands
      Life in lakes and wetlands (limnology)
      Importance of lakes in ecosystems
      Watershed hydrology and 
      Importance of lakes to man.

    Problems plaguing lakes and wetlands:
    Under this I  would be dealing with various problems which are faced 
    by lakes such as  pollution, depletion of  water resources and their 
    causes. The loss of watershed areas through denudation of vegetation 
    is also a major problem.

    Prevention methodologies and conservation strategies:
    Here  I  would  give  wetland  information about the restoration and 
    conservation  strategies  like  better  land  use, protection  of  a 
    critical watershed vegetation, conservation and proper utilization 
    of water resources and more.
    
    Remediation measures:
    The  remedial  measures which are to be taken to tackle the problems 
    of the water  resources will be dealt with in this part of the paper. 
    Measures such  as  careful  usage  and  management  of  water, urban 
    planning, a proper disposal of chemical and nuclear wastes are to be 
    taken. The role of the Government in conservation of water resources 
    should also be pivotal.

    Suggestions:
    Here, I will be giving a few suggestions on how the society can help 
    and how we can create awareness among the people regarding the lakes.



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RESTORATION OF LAKES AND WETLANDS

Parul Khare
    Harvesting of rainwater  especially during the rainy season is most 
    important which  means that during this period we should be able to 
    absorb and  conserve the maximum quantity of this natural water for 
    our  domestic  and  agricultural  purposes. The  over  flow of this 
    rainwater in the  shallow basin forms the lake. The water retention 
    power of the  soil due to too much of the  moisture present already 
    in the soil results into the natural accumulation of water from the 
    surroundings which result into the natural formation of lakes which 
    differ from ponds as these are manmade for domestic purposes.Floods 
    and droughts which have  happened this  year in our country are the 
    natural  calamities of  life and  property which are  caused due to 
    higher temperature for longer period.

    Fingerling i.e.,seeds of different varieties of fishes are released 
    in  these  ponds and  lakes which give  income to farmers. The most 
    important  characteristics  of  majority  of  these lakes are their 
    temperature  patterns with depth. The  stratification plays a major 
    role in the  movement of  nutrients and dissolved oxygen and has an 
    important  control effect on  Lake Ecology. The pattern of sediment 
    deposition in lakes depends on the rates of supply in flowing water 
    and on  surface  current  and  topography. Earth  rotation  has  an 
    important  effect on the  flow of water within the lake. The action 
    of  wind also  helps in  direction of  water  flow. The  biological 
    health   of  the  lake  is  crucially  dependent  on  its  chemical 
    characteristics.  Limnologists  and  hydrobiologists  concern  with 
    cycling of basic nutrients within a lake system particularly carbon, 
    nitrogen,phosphorus and sulfate sediments and silt of a lake, which 
    is rich on nitrogen and help in the increase of agricultural yields.

    Wetland plays pivotal role in the aquatic ecosystem. These wetlands 
    are of much use for  paddy  growing and being shallow, small fishes 
    are present which attract long legged birds praying on these fishes,
    giving  another  biological  combination. Wetlands are marshy lands 
    rich  in nitrogen, biologically  ecologically different from  lakes. 
    Industrial   and  domestic  wastes  into  these  lakes  affect  the 
    waterfowls.

    Removal of water  hyacinth  and  its  use in generation  of  biogas, 
    afforestation, water  quality  monitoring  and  protective measures 
    improve the  environment. Restoration  plans  for  the  lake system 
    should be  undertaken on ecological  considerations following their 
    geo - physical  environment  and  annual  rhythm  in  chemical  and 
    biological composition.



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RESTORATION AND RECOVERY OF LAKES - NOT JUST PRACHING BUT ALSO PRACTISING

Bharath L.
    What is  pollution? Pollution  is any  phenomenon that contaminates 
    Mother  Earth with something poisonous and harmful. Today pollution 
    has  become a household name. Although  since 1991, containing this 
    devil has been in every politician’s agenda, so far nothing serious 
    has been done to curb it.

    Any  lake in any place is a  beauty spot of that place. A calm lake 
    bordered by clumps of trees is a place just next to paradise.A lake, 
    whenever  somebody sees it generates the  imagination of recreation. 
    Dumping of garbage has become a common occurrence. Scenes of people 
    cleansing  themselves  is a oh-what-is-this sight. Release of water 
    into the lakes by small industries is monstrous.

    It is  just a  matter of time before even lakes are eliminated. Man 
    has  the right to live but not to  destroy. Mother  Nature is dying, 
    save her.



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CONSERVE NATURE - PROTECT LAKES COMMUNITY HEALTH !
NATIONS WEALTH !

C.ArunKumar and N.Jitendra
    Bangalore, a  garden  city, has  plenty of  fresh  water  lakes and 
    greenery around it. The city is facing a threat on its lakes due to 
    pollution. One such highly polluted lake is  VARTHUR  LAKE, located 
    about 18 Kms,towards the south, which is spread over an approximate 
    area of 2.5 sq.kms. This  lake  once   was a  abode for  variety of 
    fishes, aquatic  plants & many  birds. Today,  the  lake is  highly 
    polluted,almost becoming a dead lake.This has bothered the citizens 
    a lot and hence the  10th Std. Students of K.K. English High School, 
    Varthur, thought of a project to bring  back the lake to its life & 
    protect  the  ecosystem  and  save  the  lake, which  would help in 
    community  development &  maintain  ecological  balance. Hence  the 
    project  “ Conserve   Nature – Protect  Lakes , Community   health! 
    Nations wealth”. 

    The  methodology followed is a survey of the catchment area, sewage 
    lines, storm  water drains, physico  chemical  analysis of water of 
    the lake as well as the  drinking water  collected from nearby open 
    dug wells and  borewells and survey of doctors treating patients in 
    and  around Varthur. The  results  obtained showed the pollution of 
    the  lake  water  with  faecal  matter,  MPN  100ml  is  2500, high 
    concentrations of  phosphates, high  BOD, high turbidity, growth of 
    algae, pesticides etc.

    The results were compared with the standard  permissible levels and 
    it was a clear indication of high incidence of water being polluted, 
    which is a  threat to the fresh water lake. Hence, is a urgent need 
    for protection and conservation of the Lake.



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SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT POLICY
THINK GLOBALY - ACT LOCALLY

Bhavana. Y.
    Water  is  a  major  natural   resource  crucial   for  sustainable 
    development. It  is  necessary  to  supply  good  water  to all the 
    population without degrading  hydrological, biological and chemical 
    functions of  ecosystems. Human  activities and  social development 
    should  be  carried  out  within  the  capacity  limits  of natural 
    resources.

    Current  water usage patterns are not sustainable. Water  shortages 
    and  pollution are  causing wide  spread  health problems, limiting 
    economic and agricultural  development and harming a wide  range of 
    ecosystems.

    Freshwater  systems  include  reservoirs, streams, groundwater  and 
    watershed  lands.  Change  in  one  component  affects  the  entire 
    watershed and associated ecosystem.

    WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POLICY:
    
    There  should be effective  policies to govern  and  replenish this 
    valuable  resources  within  a  country and ideally there should be 
    co-operation among various states without partisan considerations.

    The  following  issues  should  be  given  utmost priority in water 
    resource management,
    1) Reduced extractions
    2) Changing consumption patterns by properly pricing these resources.
    3) Managing transboundary river basins effectively.
    4) Promoting  technologies  to  treat  waste  water  and  industrial 
       effluents in an ecofriendly way.
    5) Integrated water resource management.
    6) Recharging groundwater
    7) Rain water harvesting.
    8) Creating public awareness.



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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHENOTYPE AND GENOTYPE OF THE OYSTER Crassostrea madrasensis PRESTON IN 3 VARIABLY POLLUTED WATER BODIES OF KERALA

Ajay Narendra
    In this study high amount of pollution in two of the 3 water bodies 
    selected in Kerala has been recorded.This has also been effectively 
    substantiated by the presence of large  amount  of  heavy metals in 
    the tissue of the edible oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, which were 
    observed. In the three lakes,three different phenotypes of the same 
    specie of  oyster was used  as  indicator. On  conducting karyotype 
    analysis  on  these  three  phenotypes, 19, 20  and  21  number  of 
    chromosomes are recorded. This  observed  chromosomal variation was 
    recorded  only  with  specifically  associated phenotypes. This has 
    given rise  to thoughts of a probable variation or mutation because 
    of excessive pollution of lakes, which in turn has also resulted in 
    bioaccumulation.
    
    



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GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL ESTIMATION – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

S.Mohan and V.Ramani Bai
    With  the  increase  in  demand  of water for competing uses, it is 
    difficult to meet the entire  demand from a single source and it is 
    a challenge to plan and manage the different water resources. Among 
    the  two  major  water  resources  namely  surface and ground water 
    resources, it  is  the  ground  water  resource, which  needs to be 
    managed  carefully especially in the drought prone areas. The hydro 
    geological  features  such  as  sub-soil  structure, rock formation, 
    lithology and location of water  play a crucial role in determining 
    the potential of water storage in ground water reservoirs.To assess 
    the  ground  water  potential a  suitable and accurate technique is 
    required so that more meaningful and objective analysis may be done. 
    A  critical  study  is  carried  out  on  the  different methods of 
    estimating the ground water potential and compared to arrive at the 
    most  suitable  technique for practical utility. In this work, four 
    methods of estimating ground water recharge viz.,yearly water level 
    fluctuation, 10 years  average water level fluctuation, fluctuation 
    between  the  lowest  and  highest  water  levels  over  10   years, 
    fluctuation  in  monsoon  and non-monsoon seasons were  studied. The 
    results  of this study helps in accurate prediction of ground  water 
    availability which in turn will avoid ground water over exploitation 
    and to restore the aquatic Eco-systems.



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NEUTRAL NETWORKS BASED SYSTEM FOR MONITORING THE LAKE ECOSYSTEM

S.Mohan and P. Jegathambal
    Risk of diagnosis of pollution is one of the key tasks in the field 
    of  ecological  monitoring of natural and  technogenous environment. 
    Eutrophication  in  the lake ecosystem is a natural  process, which 
    can be greatly accelerated by those activities,which  may discharge 
    nutrients  in  the form  of  pollution. Accelerated  eutrophication 
    results  in  the  production  and  accumulation  of organic  matter 
    through  excessive  growth  of  algae  and  other plants. When  the 
    accumulation of vegetation decomposes it results in the consumption 
    of  DO which finally results in the filling up and disappearance of 
    lake and estuaries.

    Eutrophication can have a significant effect on domestic,industrial 
    and recreational uses of water.Excessive growth of algae results in 
    high  water treatment costs to make water potable and it can impair 
    the  aesthetic  qualities  of  neutral  waters. A  portion  of  the 
    nutrients, soluble and insoluble, introduced to an  aquatic  system 
    becomes a part of bottom sediments.

    Eutrophication can  be analyzed quantitatively by modeling and thus 
    the  effects  of  various parameters will be analyzed which in turn 
    help  us  in  monitoring  and controlling the point sources and non-
    point  sources of pollution. The subsystems that contribute for the 
    eutrophication  are modeled using neural network based system. With 
    input/output  from  a  system, a  neural  network  dynamic model is 
    developed  using  supervised  learning. During the training process 
    actual  input  and  outputs from the system are provided as network 
    inputs  and  the target output is the value of the system output at 
    the  next time step. The system suggested in this paper is intended 
    for  solving  the  problem   of  detection ,  identification ,  and 
    concentration measurement of water environmental pollution.

    The  model can detect “stress” concentration of environment, namely, 
    detects  that  technogenous pollution exceeds a predetermined level. 
    The  model  can  also  identify  the pollutant (s) and measure it’s 
    concentration. The  system  can  be  utilized  to perform pollution 
    classification on the basis of  “generalized” classes of pollutants.




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WATER QUALITY VARIATIONS IN THE LAKES OF MYSORE DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

S.M. Yamuna and A.Balasubramanian
    The  biological  wealth  of a lake is mainly dependent on its water 
    quality .  The  chemical  characteristics  of  pollutants  and  the 
    sediments entering  into the  system  from various  sources are the 
    major  problems of medium  and minor lakes located in several parts 
    of the  country. This highlights the quality of water analyzed with 
    reference to various  physico-chemical parameters in selected lakes 
    of  Mysore district, Karnataka. The  major ions present in the lake 
    water have been  analyzed. The  lakes situated in and around Mysore 
    City, are found  to be under the influence of major parameters like 
    nitrate, pH, chloride, Total  dissolved  Solid (TDS),  calcium  and 
    magnesium. In many of  the lakes  two  or more parameters have been 
    reported to be well above the permissible limit  of  drinking water. 
    The  conservation  measures of maintaining  the quality of water in 
    these lakes have been discussed.