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N.S.Thejaswi & Group
IMPORTANCE OF LAKES AND WETLANDS
Without food we can live atleast for 15 to 20 days. Whereas without
water, we cannot live even for half a day! Water is an important
natural resource.It is helpful in many sources to humans. It serves
as a cheap means of transport. Besides these services, water also
has some of the biological importance. It is essential for the
metabolic activities of many organisms. But, unfortunately, due to
numerous harmful activities, water is being polluted. What are its
effects? How can we prevent this depletion? For this information
read the following article.
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EWSTORATION OF LAKES AND GROUNDWATERAnupama Ashok
I derive great pleasure in presenting to you my paper on restoration
of lakes and wetlands. In the introduction you would get an insight
into the following topics:
Formation of lakes and wetlands
Major lakes and wetlands
Life in lakes and wetlands (limnology)
Importance of lakes in ecosystems
Watershed hydrology and
Importance of lakes to man.
Problems plaguing lakes and wetlands:
Under this I would be dealing with various problems which are faced
by lakes such as pollution, depletion of water resources and their
causes. The loss of watershed areas through denudation of vegetation
is also a major problem.
Prevention methodologies and conservation strategies:
Here I would give wetland information about the restoration and
conservation strategies like better land use, protection of a
critical watershed vegetation, conservation and proper utilization
of water resources and more.
The remedial measures which are to be taken to tackle the problems
of the water resources will be dealt with in this part of the paper.
Measures such as careful usage and management of water, urban
planning, a proper disposal of chemical and nuclear wastes are to be
taken. The role of the Government in conservation of water resources
should also be pivotal.
Here, I will be giving a few suggestions on how the society can help
and how we can create awareness among the people regarding the lakes.
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RESTORATION OF LAKES AND WETLANDSParul Khare
Harvesting of rainwater especially during the rainy season is most
important which means that during this period we should be able to
absorb and conserve the maximum quantity of this natural water for
our domestic and agricultural purposes. The over flow of this
rainwater in the shallow basin forms the lake. The water retention
power of the soil due to too much of the moisture present already
in the soil results into the natural accumulation of water from the
surroundings which result into the natural formation of lakes which
differ from ponds as these are manmade for domestic purposes.Floods
and droughts which have happened this year in our country are the
natural calamities of life and property which are caused due to
higher temperature for longer period.
Fingerling i.e.,seeds of different varieties of fishes are released
in these ponds and lakes which give income to farmers. The most
important characteristics of majority of these lakes are their
temperature patterns with depth. The stratification plays a major
role in the movement of nutrients and dissolved oxygen and has an
important control effect on Lake Ecology. The pattern of sediment
deposition in lakes depends on the rates of supply in flowing water
and on surface current and topography. Earth rotation has an
important effect on the flow of water within the lake. The action
of wind also helps in direction of water flow. The biological
health of the lake is crucially dependent on its chemical
characteristics. Limnologists and hydrobiologists concern with
cycling of basic nutrients within a lake system particularly carbon,
nitrogen,phosphorus and sulfate sediments and silt of a lake, which
is rich on nitrogen and help in the increase of agricultural yields.
Wetland plays pivotal role in the aquatic ecosystem. These wetlands
are of much use for paddy growing and being shallow, small fishes
are present which attract long legged birds praying on these fishes,
giving another biological combination. Wetlands are marshy lands
rich in nitrogen, biologically ecologically different from lakes.
Industrial and domestic wastes into these lakes affect the
Removal of water hyacinth and its use in generation of biogas,
afforestation, water quality monitoring and protective measures
improve the environment. Restoration plans for the lake system
should be undertaken on ecological considerations following their
geo - physical environment and annual rhythm in chemical and
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RESTORATION AND RECOVERY OF LAKES - NOT JUST PRACHING BUT ALSO PRACTISING
What is pollution? Pollution is any phenomenon that contaminates
Mother Earth with something poisonous and harmful. Today pollution
has become a household name. Although since 1991, containing this
devil has been in every politician’s agenda, so far nothing serious
has been done to curb it.
Any lake in any place is a beauty spot of that place. A calm lake
bordered by clumps of trees is a place just next to paradise.A lake,
whenever somebody sees it generates the imagination of recreation.
Dumping of garbage has become a common occurrence. Scenes of people
cleansing themselves is a oh-what-is-this sight. Release of water
into the lakes by small industries is monstrous.
It is just a matter of time before even lakes are eliminated. Man
has the right to live but not to destroy. Mother Nature is dying,
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CONSERVE NATURE - PROTECT LAKES COMMUNITY HEALTH !
C.ArunKumar and N.Jitendra
NATIONS WEALTH !
Bangalore, a garden city, has plenty of fresh water lakes and
greenery around it. The city is facing a threat on its lakes due to
pollution. One such highly polluted lake is VARTHUR LAKE, located
about 18 Kms,towards the south, which is spread over an approximate
area of 2.5 sq.kms. This lake once was a abode for variety of
fishes, aquatic plants & many birds. Today, the lake is highly
polluted,almost becoming a dead lake.This has bothered the citizens
a lot and hence the 10th Std. Students of K.K. English High School,
Varthur, thought of a project to bring back the lake to its life &
protect the ecosystem and save the lake, which would help in
community development & maintain ecological balance. Hence the
project “ Conserve Nature – Protect Lakes , Community health!
The methodology followed is a survey of the catchment area, sewage
lines, storm water drains, physico chemical analysis of water of
the lake as well as the drinking water collected from nearby open
dug wells and borewells and survey of doctors treating patients in
and around Varthur. The results obtained showed the pollution of
the lake water with faecal matter, MPN 100ml is 2500, high
concentrations of phosphates, high BOD, high turbidity, growth of
algae, pesticides etc.
The results were compared with the standard permissible levels and
it was a clear indication of high incidence of water being polluted,
which is a threat to the fresh water lake. Hence, is a urgent need
for protection and conservation of the Lake.
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SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT POLICY
THINK GLOBALY - ACT LOCALLY
Water is a major natural resource crucial for sustainable
development. It is necessary to supply good water to all the
population without degrading hydrological, biological and chemical
functions of ecosystems. Human activities and social development
should be carried out within the capacity limits of natural
Current water usage patterns are not sustainable. Water shortages
and pollution are causing wide spread health problems, limiting
economic and agricultural development and harming a wide range of
Freshwater systems include reservoirs, streams, groundwater and
watershed lands. Change in one component affects the entire
watershed and associated ecosystem.
WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POLICY:
There should be effective policies to govern and replenish this
valuable resources within a country and ideally there should be
co-operation among various states without partisan considerations.
The following issues should be given utmost priority in water
1) Reduced extractions
2) Changing consumption patterns by properly pricing these resources.
3) Managing transboundary river basins effectively.
4) Promoting technologies to treat waste water and industrial
effluents in an ecofriendly way.
5) Integrated water resource management.
6) Recharging groundwater
7) Rain water harvesting.
8) Creating public awareness.
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHENOTYPE AND GENOTYPE OF THE OYSTER Crassostrea madrasensis
PRESTON IN 3 VARIABLY POLLUTED WATER BODIES OF KERALA
In this study high amount of pollution in two of the 3 water bodies
selected in Kerala has been recorded.This has also been effectively
substantiated by the presence of large amount of heavy metals in
the tissue of the edible oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, which were
observed. In the three lakes,three different phenotypes of the same
specie of oyster was used as indicator. On conducting karyotype
analysis on these three phenotypes, 19, 20 and 21 number of
chromosomes are recorded. This observed chromosomal variation was
recorded only with specifically associated phenotypes. This has
given rise to thoughts of a probable variation or mutation because
of excessive pollution of lakes, which in turn has also resulted in
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GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL ESTIMATION – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
S.Mohan and V.Ramani Bai
With the increase in demand of water for competing uses, it is
difficult to meet the entire demand from a single source and it is
a challenge to plan and manage the different water resources. Among
the two major water resources namely surface and ground water
resources, it is the ground water resource, which needs to be
managed carefully especially in the drought prone areas. The hydro
geological features such as sub-soil structure, rock formation,
lithology and location of water play a crucial role in determining
the potential of water storage in ground water reservoirs.To assess
the ground water potential a suitable and accurate technique is
required so that more meaningful and objective analysis may be done.
A critical study is carried out on the different methods of
estimating the ground water potential and compared to arrive at the
most suitable technique for practical utility. In this work, four
methods of estimating ground water recharge viz.,yearly water level
fluctuation, 10 years average water level fluctuation, fluctuation
between the lowest and highest water levels over 10 years,
fluctuation in monsoon and non-monsoon seasons were studied. The
results of this study helps in accurate prediction of ground water
availability which in turn will avoid ground water over exploitation
and to restore the aquatic Eco-systems.
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NEUTRAL NETWORKS BASED SYSTEM FOR MONITORING THE LAKE ECOSYSTEM
S.Mohan and P. Jegathambal
Risk of diagnosis of pollution is one of the key tasks in the field
of ecological monitoring of natural and technogenous environment.
Eutrophication in the lake ecosystem is a natural process, which
can be greatly accelerated by those activities,which may discharge
nutrients in the form of pollution. Accelerated eutrophication
results in the production and accumulation of organic matter
through excessive growth of algae and other plants. When the
accumulation of vegetation decomposes it results in the consumption
of DO which finally results in the filling up and disappearance of
lake and estuaries.
Eutrophication can have a significant effect on domestic,industrial
and recreational uses of water.Excessive growth of algae results in
high water treatment costs to make water potable and it can impair
the aesthetic qualities of neutral waters. A portion of the
nutrients, soluble and insoluble, introduced to an aquatic system
becomes a part of bottom sediments.
Eutrophication can be analyzed quantitatively by modeling and thus
the effects of various parameters will be analyzed which in turn
help us in monitoring and controlling the point sources and non-
point sources of pollution. The subsystems that contribute for the
eutrophication are modeled using neural network based system. With
input/output from a system, a neural network dynamic model is
developed using supervised learning. During the training process
actual input and outputs from the system are provided as network
inputs and the target output is the value of the system output at
the next time step. The system suggested in this paper is intended
for solving the problem of detection , identification , and
concentration measurement of water environmental pollution.
The model can detect “stress” concentration of environment, namely,
detects that technogenous pollution exceeds a predetermined level.
The model can also identify the pollutant (s) and measure it’s
concentration. The system can be utilized to perform pollution
classification on the basis of “generalized” classes of pollutants.
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S.M. Yamuna and A.Balasubramanian
WATER QUALITY VARIATIONS IN THE LAKES OF MYSORE DISTRICT, KARNATAKA
The biological wealth of a lake is mainly dependent on its water
quality . The chemical characteristics of pollutants and the
sediments entering into the system from various sources are the
major problems of medium and minor lakes located in several parts
of the country. This highlights the quality of water analyzed with
reference to various physico-chemical parameters in selected lakes
of Mysore district, Karnataka. The major ions present in the lake
water have been analyzed. The lakes situated in and around Mysore
City, are found to be under the influence of major parameters like
nitrate, pH, chloride, Total dissolved Solid (TDS), calcium and
magnesium. In many of the lakes two or more parameters have been
reported to be well above the permissible limit of drinking water.
The conservation measures of maintaining the quality of water in
these lakes have been discussed.