¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
ENVIS Technical Report 124,   October 2017
T.V. Ramachandra        Sudarshan P. Bhat        Vinay S       

Constructed wetlands are artificial wastewater treatment systems consisting of shallow (usually less than 1 m deep) ponds or channels which have been planted with aquatic plants, and which rely upon natural microbial, biological, physical and chemical processes with an ability to uptake nutrients from wastewater

  • Tertiary treatment of wastewater entails the removal of nutrients (inorganic compounds such as phosphorus and nitrogen) through macrophytes and virtually all suspended and organic matter from waste water
  • Aquatic macrophytes are the vascular plants that are normally found growing in wetlands.
  • Macrophytes are of considerable ecological and economic importance as they help in the uptake of nutrients and hence help in maintaining the chemical integrity of the respective ecosystem.
  • They assimilate nutrients directly into their tissues. Due to these they were used to solve eutrophic problems of freshwater bodies and to remove pollutants.
  • Aquatic macrophytes aid in bioremediation and hence wetlands are aptly known as ‘kidneys of the landscape’.
  • They also respond to changes in water quality and have been used as indicators of pollution and are known as ‘bio-indicators’
  • Aquatic plants mobilize mineral elements from the bottom sediments and provide shelter to aquatic macro invertebrates and fishes.
  • 3 types of macrophytes in Bangalore wetlands – Submerged, Emergent and Floating  macrophytes