Intra and Inter Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Urbanisation in Indian Megacities

H. A. Bharath 1,4*             M.C. Chandan 4             S. Vinay 1             T. V. Ramachandra 1,2,3
1 Energy & Wetlands Research Group, Center for Ecological Sciences [CES], 2Centre for Sustainable Technologies (astra),
3 Centre for infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning [CiSTUP], Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560012, India.
4 Centre for RCGSIDM, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721302, India

Major metropolitan (tier I) Indian cities have been experiencing rapid urbanisation during the last two decades with globalization and changes in Indian market. These unprecedented market interventions have led to rapid urban expansions with drastic land cover changes affecting the ecology, climate, hydrology and local environment. Unplanned rapid urbanisation in some cities has given way to the dispersed, haphazard growth at city outskirts. These regions lack basic amenities and infrastructure as the planners lack advance information of sprawl regions. This has necessitated understanding and visualization of urbanisation patterns for planning towards sustainable cities. Temporal availability of spatial data at regular intervals through space borne remote sensors coupled with the recent advances in geo-informatics aids in the advance geo- visualization of spatial patterns of urban growth. The urban expansion and the urban growth dynamics elucidated for four major metros of India, using temporal remote sensing data through density gradient approach and pre-validated spatial metrics. The current communication provides vital insights to the intra and inter spatio-temporal patterns of urbanisation across four rapidly urbanising metropolitan cities in India. Analyses of intra spatial patterns reveal that inner gradients (in the vicinity of central business district) have reached the threshold of urbanisation. Landscape metrics highlight the process of aggregation through clumping of patches to form a dominant urban patch with complex to simple shapes and highly domination urban class. Further, Principal component analyses (PCA) highlight that buffer regions are influenced by patches with complex shaped multi class growth, while core city centers have a simple shaped clumped growth.

Keywords: Urbanization, urban growth, spatial metrics, Principal Component Analysis, density gradients

Mathematics Subject Classification : 68T05
Computing Classification System : Information systems~Geographic information systems




TOP   »   NEXT
Citation : H. A. Bharath, M.C. Chandan, S. Vinay, Ramachandra. T.V., 2017. Intra and Inter Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Urbanisation in Indian Megacities., International Journal of Imaging And Romotics [ISSN 2231-525X], Volume17; Issue No 2; Year 2017, Int J. Imag. Robot, PP: 68-86.
* Corresponding Author :
Dr. T.V. Ramachandra
Energy & Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560 012, India.
Tel : +91-80-2293 3099/2293 3503 [extn - 107],      Fax : 91-80-23601428 / 23600085 / 23600683 [CES-TVR]
E-mail :,,     Web :,
E-mail    |    Sahyadri    |    ENVIS    |    GRASS    |    Energy    |      CES      |      CST      |    CiSTUP    |      IISc      |    E-mail