Biosorption of Heavy Metals
N. Ahalya, T.V. Ramachandra*,1 and R.D. Kanamadi 2

1 Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, INDIA.
2 Department of Zoology, Karnataka University, Dharwad, INDIA.


The discharge of heavy metals into aquatic ecosystems has become a matter of concern in India over the last few decades. These pollutants are introduced into the aquatic systems significantly as a result of various industrial operations. Industrialization in India gained a momentum with initiation of five year developmental plan in the early 50's. The pollutants of concern include lead, chromium, mercury, uranium, selenium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, gold, silver, copper and nickel. These toxic materials may be derived from mining operations, refining ores, sludge disposal, fly ash from incinerators, the processing of radioactive materials, metal plating, or the manufacture of electrical equipment, paints, alloys, batteries, pesticides or preservatives. Heavy metals such as zinc, lead and chromium have a number of applications in basic engineering works, paper and pulp industries, leather tanning, organochemicals, petrochemicals fertlisers, etc. Major lead pollution is through automobiles and battery manufacturers. For zinc and chromium the major application is in fertliser and leather tanning respectively (Trivedi, 1989). Over the few decades, several methods have been devised for the treatment and removal of heavy metals.

Citation : Ahalya N., Ramachandra T.V. and Kanamadi R.D., 2003. Biosorption of Heavy Metals. Resesarch Journal of Chemistry and Environment, 7(4): 71-79
* Corresponding Author :
  Dr. T.V. Ramachandra
Energy & Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560 012, INDIA.
Tel : 91-80-23600985 / 22932506 / 22933099,
Fax : 91-80-23601428 / 23600085 / 23600683 [CES-TVR]
E-mail :,,
Web :
E-mail    |    Sahyadri    |    ENVIS    |    GRASS    |    Energy    |    CES    |    CST    |    CiSTUP    |    IISc    |    E-mail