Status of Bangalore Wetlands: Strategies for Restoration, Conservation and Management
Kiran. R. and Ramachandra. T.V.*
Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India


Wetlands play a pivotal role in the maintaining the ecological balance of the local system by its functions as sources, sinks, and transformers of a multitude of chemical, biological, and genetic materials. The interaction of human society with wetlands to obtain multiple benefits- natural resources, amenities and environmental services such as ground water, fisheries, migratory birds habitat, etc.

Wetlands occupy about 4.8% of Bangalore City's geographical area. Anthropogenic stress due to unplanned developmental activities and population growth has severely affected these fragile ecosystems sustainability. This has led to the decline in the number of waterbodies, spread area changes, interconnectivity breakage and decreased water quality. Spatial and temporal changes were analysed through tools such as GIS and remote sensing, etc. Waterbodies characterisation is done through physico-chemical and biological monitoring of monthly water samples from selected waterbodies, spread across the city.

Research results reveal about 35% decline in number of waterbodies between 1973-1996. Drainage network analyses highlights the loss in interconnectivity affecting the local hydrology, ground water table and other benefits of the ecosystem. Point and non- point source pollution has contributed to the decline in the health, affecting the beneficial utilities. Strategies involving local people, non-governmental organisations and educational institutions are proposed to restore, conserve and manage wetlands. 

* Corresponding Author :
  Dr. T.V. Ramachandra
Energy & Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560 012, INDIA.
  Tel : 91-80-23600985 / 22932506 / 22933099,
Fax : 91-80-23601428 / 23600085 / 23600683 [CES-TVR]
E-mail :,,
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