A  number  of  scientific  papers  had  been  presented  by  scientists  from  India     and
       and  abroad  on  different aspects of  wetlands,  including  energetics,  nutrient  cycling, 
       biodiversity,  disease   and   health   of   the   biota (particularly the fishes),  sustainable 
       utilization, management and conservation of the  wetlands and their biota, reclamation 
       & restoration of the wetlands & their modeling. 

       On the  basis  of  discussions  and  deliberations  held in the Symposium, the following 
        recommendations are unanimously adopted :
       Recommendation No 1:   The   Symposium   recommends   integration  of   different 
       Government Agencies for effective implementation of activities related to restoration 
       of wetlands, their sustainable utilization & conservation. 

       Recommendation No 2:It is recommended that a  National Committee for  Lakes and 
       Wetlands reclamation, restoration  &  development be formed to formulate a National 
       Policy to evolve  strategies for their  sustainable  utilization  and c onservation. (Funds 
       be made available from National & International sources to the Centre for Ecological 
       Sciences,  Indian  Institute  of Science, to go ahead with the restoration of the Lakes in   
       collaboration with National  & International Organizations in view of the importance 
       of Lakes and Wetlands in rural development).

       Recommendation No 3:   A   Comprehensive   Plan  be   prepared  to  study  selective, 
       representative  Wetlands  in a  phased  manner to create  database with  regard  to their 
       present status,sustainable use,management and conservation and to formulate strategies 
       for  their  long   term   management.  Regular  monitoring  of  ecosystems  through  the 
       involvement  of  Schools,  Colleges  &  Universities. (For this  purpose, funds be made 
       available to Centre for Ecological Sciences,  Indian Institute of Science,  Bangalore to 
       implement proposal in collaboration with National and International  Organizations.).
       Recommendation No 4:  A  Comprehensive  Action  Plan be chalked out immediately 
       for  taking  care of   health, disease  and  quarantine  aspects  of  the  aquatic  biota. The 
       aspects assume importance in view of the still persisting virulent disease like Epizootic 
       Ulcerative  Syndrome  (EUS)  among  the  freshwater   fishes   of   India .  A   National 
       Committee  be formed to  tackle  such health and  disease  problems  among the aquatic 
       biota  which has been a concern to the  society as a whole. The  committee be entrusted 
       to find ways and means to control the epidemic. 
       Recommendation No 5: India being a Megadiversity region, with hotspots in Western 
       Ghats  and North Eastern regions, a  comprehensive action plan be chalked out to study 
       the aquatic biodiversity of the inland water bodies of the country.Centre for Ecological 
       Sciences (CES) be  entrusted to  co-ordinate the  aspect with collaboration at  National 
       and International levels. 
       Recommendation No 6:  Mass awareness programme be chalked out and implemented 
       through Governmental and Non-Governmental Organisations(NGO)for popularization 
       of  the  importance  of  the  lakes,  wetlands  and  rivers,  and  their  role  in  the aquatic
       biodiversity  and sustenance of  human  civilization.  CES  be  entrusted to  co-ordinate
       the  aspect  with  collaboration  from  Governmental  and  Non  Governmental 
       Organization at National and International levels. 

       Recommendation No 7:  Lakes &  Ponds in  each  Zilla  Panchayath  area be identified 
       and  their  streams  recharged  through  peoples  participation. People  should  be   made 
       aware of their  significance so that  reclamation  and conservation of these water bodies 
       be taken up effectively.

       Recommendation No 8:   Temporary  ponds be identified and their  diversity explored 
       to delineate their contribution to the society.
       Recommendation No 9:  People's  watchdog  team to stop the  dumping of wastes into 
       water  bodies  and  the  catchment  area   protection. Steps  should be  taken to  bring in 
       aesthetic sense among the public  which will help protect the lakes. 
       Recommendation  No 10:    Fishermens  socio - economic  aspects  to  be  taken   into 
       consideration while formulating wetland policies.
       Recommendation No 11: Students  involvement  including  curriculum  development 
       concerning the protection of the ecosystem.
       Recommendation  No 12:  Ownership  and  legal  status  of lakes and  the  inhabitants 
       around to be properly defined.
       Recommendation  No 13:   Easy  access for  scientists  and  students to investigate the 
       status   of   wetlands  in   protected   areas.  Free  access   of   data ,   Survey   of    India  
       toposheets, along with GIS and Remote Sensing data be made available. 

       Recommendation  No 14:   Introduction  of  exotic  fishes  into  lakes  to be permitted 
       only after clearance from Fishery experts.

       Recommendation  No  15:  Education and training: 
       Participants   strongly   felt   that  the  public  needs  to  be  better  informed  about  the 
       rationale, goals and  methods of  aquatic ecosystem  restorations. In addition, scientists 
       and  researchers  with the broad  training  needed  for  aquatic   ecosystem   restoration, 
       management  and  conservation  are in  short  supply. The  lake 2000  recommends  are 
       following :
            Public education and outreach  should be components of aquatic  ecosystem 
            restorations. Lake  Associations and citizen  monitoring groups have proved 
            helpful in educating the general public, and effort should be made to ensure 
            that  such  groups  have   accurate   information  about  the  causes  of  lake 
            degradation and various restoration methods.

            Funding is needed  for  both  undergraduate  and  graduate  programmes in 
            aquatic   ecosystem   restorations .  Training    programmes   should   cause 
            traditional   disciplinary   boundaries  such  as  those  between   basic   and 
            applied ecology :   between  water   quality  management  and  fisheries  or  
            wildlife management :  among  lakes, streams, river, coastal  wetlands and 
            wetland  ecology. 
In this regard Lake 2000 recommends :

       Recommendation  No  16:  The  National  and  State  Governments  should  support 
       research  and  development,  watershed-scale  restorations that integrate lake, stream 
       and   wetland   components.  State  agencies,  Non-Governmental  organizations  and 
       University  researchers  should participate  in planning, implementing and evaluating 
       restoration projects. In  addition, an  inter-agency programme under  Karnataka State 
       Council  for  Science  and   Technology could be formed to  co-ordinate the selection, 
       planning and  evaluation of these pilot  projects. The  research and implementation of 
       the projects could be managed by the participating agencies.

       Recommendation  No  17:   Lake  2000  believes that  goals for  restoration of lakes 
       need to be  realistic and  should be based on the  concept of  expected  conditions  for 
       individual  eco-regions. Further  development  of  project  selection  and   evaluation 
       technology based on  eco-region  definitions  and  description  should be  encouraged 
       and supported by the national and state government agencies. 

       Research  and  development  are  needed in  several  areas of applied  limnology, and 
       this   programme   should   take   an   experimental    approach    which    emphasizes 
       manipulation of whole ecosystems.
       Improved techniques for littoral zone and aquatic microphytes  management needs to 
       be developed. Research  should  go  beyond the removal of  nuisance  microphytes to 
       address  the  restoration of native  species that are esse ntial for  waterfowl  and  fish 
       habitat .  Basic  research  is  necessary  to   improve   understanding  of  fundamental 
       limnological  processes  in  littoral  zones  and the  interactions  between  littoral and 
       pelagic  zones  of  lakes.

       Biomanipulation (foodweb  management) has  great  potential  for low-cost and long-
       term management of lakes, and  research in this  emerging field must be  stimulated.

       Innovative  and  low-cost  approaches  to  contaminant  clean up in  lakes  need to  be 

       The relations between loadings of  stress-causing  substances  and  responses of lakes 
       need to be  understood  more  precisely.  Research  should  be  undertaken to improve 
       predictions of trophic state and nutrient loading relationships.

       Improved assessment programmes are needed to determine the severity and extent 
       of damage in lakes and wetlands and a change in status over time.  Innovative basic 
       research is required to improve the science of assessment and monitoring.  There is 
       a great need for cost effective, reliable indicators of ecosystems function,  including 
       those  that  would  reflect  long-term  change and response to stress.   Research on 
       indicators  should  include  traditional  community   and  ecosystem   measurements, 
       paleoecological trend  assessments and remote sensing.  Effective  assessment  and 
       monitoring  programme  would  involve  network  of  local  schools ,  colleges  and 

       Procedures such as food web manipulation, introduction of phytophagous,  insects 
       and fish lining, and  reintroduction  of  native  species  show  promise  for  effective 
       and  long-lasting results when used alone or in  combination  with other  restoration 
       measures.  Further  research  and  development needs to be  undertaken  on  these 

       Paleolimnological  approaches  should be used to infer the past  trophic  history of 
       lakes  and  wetlands  and  to decide  whether  these  systems  should  be  restored. 
       Paleolimnological  approaches also could be used to infer whether a lake has been 
       restored  to  its  predisturbance  condition.

Wetland Policy Guidelines 
The objective of policy with respect to wetland conservation is: To promote the conservation of wetlands to sustain their ecological and socio-economical functions , now and in the future. Towards this end, the goals are, Maintenance of the functions and values derived from wetlands; No net loss of wetland functions on regional lands and water; Enhancement and rehabilitation of wetlands where the continued loss or degradation of wetlands or their functions have reached critical levels; Recognition of wetland functions in resource planning, management and economic decision making with regard to all national/state programmes, policies and activities; Securement of wetlands of significance; Recognition of sound, sustainable management practices in sectors such as forestry and agriculture that make positive contribution to wetland conservation while also achieving wise use of wetland resources; Utilization of wetlands in a manner that enhances prospects; The proposed strategies in this regard are, i. Developing public awareness. ii. Managing wetlands on State lands and water,and in other State programmes. iii. Promote the wetland conservation in State protected areas. iv. Enhancing co-operation among State, District, Regional and Non Government partners. v. Conserving wetlands of significance. vi. Ensuring a sound scientific basis for policy. The wetland policy at State level provides: - A signal of commitment to wetland conservation and adds as a catalyst for mutually supporting action across the region; - A heightened profile for the issue to call attention to wetland, socio-economic and environmental benefits,to ensure that wetlands receive adequate consideration by the State government; - Direction and support for individual decision makers to ensure that opportunity for the sustained wise use of wetlands is realized, to avoid or reserve wetland related conflicts; - Clarification of specific State responsibility for wetlands, as well as a synthesis of existing legislation, policies and programmes which already contribute to wetland conservation; - A consistent, co-ordinated approach among the many State agencies which influence wetlands, aimed at adjusting activities which conflict with wetland conservation and ensuring progress towards specific objectives and goals. A comprehensive policy on wetlands needs to be formulated to enhance the quality and increase spatial coverage specific to the region, to offer some of the most environmentally productive and cost effective opportunities for wetland conservation . The objectives should focus on addressing the following aspects, * To reverse the current decline in the wetland base, ensuring no net loss and long term net gain in the quality, quantity and permanence of wetlands. * To encourage partnerships in restoration, management, usage, through co-operative planning efforts with the primary focus on wetland conservation. * Draft procedures for administration of wetland usage and its conservation. The emphasis is placed on the formation of Regional Wetlands Forum,involving local educational,public and private organization (involved in wetland issue). For effective functioning, the forum should consist researchers, school and college-students and teachers , economists , policy makers , representatives from agricultural community, developmental concerns , conservation organizations, state and local agencies under the collaboration efforts from the Ministry of Forest and Environment, Ministry of Science and Technology, Indian Council for Agricultural Research and planning departments with the following responsibilities. The policy should address, 1 Defining wetlands, classification(based on degree of saturation, type of vegetation,usage,soil etc),inventory, planning, wetland regulation , and conservation approaches (i.e., acquisition, restoration, management and education). 2 Establish regional and state-wide goals to achieve long term increase in wetland acreage,functions and values in emphasizing the economic uses(fishing,agriculture,drinking water supply,etc). 3 Draft programs for preservation, conservation, restoration, and enhance wetlands acreage and provide technical and adequate funding for wetlands program. 4 In the formulation/development of consistent standards and guidelines concerning wetland water quality, mitigation and monitoring of mitigation and restoration efforts. 5 Encourage actions that promote efficiency of wetlands-related Permitting processes for the varied usage of wetlands for economic purposes (as fisheries, irrigation etc) by suitable policies and creation of concurrent permit review procedures. 6 Enhancing co-ordination of governmental(state, federal) and non- governmental organizations responsible in wetland development. Action oriented restoration and conservation programs could be initiated and monitored through discussion meetings of academicians, planning and implementing agencies for providing a platform for exchange of ideas. 7 Help in the development of internal policies within state agencies like irrigation departments, public works department, forest department, urban development and others that will encourage wetland conservation activities which are compatible with programmatic goals of flood control, ground water recharge, water management,water pollution control, recreation and others. 8 Establishment of inter-agency task force responsible for co- ordinating and information exchange among the agencies, boards, and departments as necessary to ensure co-ordinated development and implementation of wetland conservation program. 9 Integrate wetland policy and planning with other environmental and land use processes. 10 Cost-benefit analysis of the wetland resources derived by the society and economic evaluation caused due to the loss of wetlands. 11 The forum could act as an advisory to the government in providing funds for wetland research and conservation programs. 12 Formulate Wetland Protection Act as a legislative vehicle to restrict any disturbance of wetlands leading to loss in biodiversity dependent on them.