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GRASS GIS 6.4.6svn Reference Manual

Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics/maps production, spatial modeling, and visualization. GRASS is currently used in academic and commercial settings around the world, as well as by many governmental agencies and environmental consulting companies.

This reference manual details the use of modules distributed with Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS), an open source (GNU GPL'ed), image processing and geographic information system (GIS).

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raster commands:
r.average Finds the average of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.
r.basins.fill Generates watershed subbasins raster map.
r.bilinear Bilinear interpolation utility for raster map layers.
r.bitpattern Compares bit patterns with a raster map.
r.blend Blends color components of two raster maps by a given ratio.
r.buffer Creates a raster map layer showing buffer zones surrounding cells that contain non-NULL category values.
r.carve Generates stream channels.
r.category Manages category values and labels associated with user-specified raster map layers.
r.circle Creates a raster map containing concentric rings around a given point.
r.clump Recategorizes data in a raster map by grouping cells that form physically discrete areas into unique categories.
r.coin Tabulates the mutual occurrence (coincidence) of categories for two raster map layers.
r.colors Creates/modifies the color table associated with a raster map layer.
r.colors.out Exports the color table associated with a raster map layer.
r.colors.stddev Set color rules based on stddev from a map's mean value.
r.composite Combines red, green and blue raster maps into a single composite raster map.
r.compress Compresses and decompresses raster maps.
r.contour Produces a vector map of specified contours from a raster map.
r.cost Creates a raster map showing the cumulative cost of moving between different geographic locations on an input raster map whose cell category values represent cost.
r.covar Outputs a covariance/correlation matrix for user-specified raster map layer(s).
r.cross Creates a cross product of the category values from multiple raster map layers.
r.describe Prints terse list of category values found in a raster map layer.
r.digit Interactive tool used to draw and save vector features on a graphics monitor using a pointing device (mouse) and save to a raster map.
r.distance Locates the closest points between objects in two raster maps.
r.drain Traces a flow through an elevation model on a raster map.
r.external Link GDAL supported raster file to a binary raster map layer.
r.fill.dir Filters and generates a depressionless elevation map and a flow direction map from a given elevation raster map.
r.fillnulls Fills no-data areas in raster maps using spline interpolation.
r.flow Construction of slope curves (flowlines), flowpath lengths, and flowline densities (upslope areas) from a raster digital elevation model (DEM).
r.grow.distance Generates a raster map containing distances to nearest raster features.
r.grow Generates a raster map layer with contiguous areas grown by one cell.
r.gwflow Numerical calculation program for transient, confined and unconfined groundwater flow in two dimensions.
r.his Generates red, green and blue raster map layers combining hue, intensity and saturation (HIS) values from user-specified input raster map layers.
r.horizon Horizon angle computation from a digital elevation model.
r.in.arc Converts an ESRI ARC/INFO ascii raster file (GRID) into a (binary) raster map layer.
r.in.ascii Converts ASCII raster file to binary raster map layer.
r.in.aster Georeference, rectify and import Terra-ASTER imagery and relative DEM's using gdalwarp.
r.in.bin Import a binary raster file into a GRASS raster map.
r.info Output basic information about a raster map layer.
r.in.gdal Import GDAL supported raster file into a binary raster map layer.
r.in.gridatb Imports GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL) into GRASS raster map
r.in.mat Imports a binary MAT-File(v4) to a GRASS raster.
r.in.poly Creates raster maps from ASCII polygon/line/point data files.
r.in.srtm Import SRTM HGT files into GRASS
r.in.wms Downloads and imports data from WMS servers.
r.in.xyz Create a raster map from an assemblage of many coordinates using univariate statistics.
r.kappa Calculate error matrix and kappa parameter for accuracy assessment of classification result.
r.lake Fills lake at given point to given level.
r.le.patch Calculates attribute, patch size, core (interior) size, shape, fractal dimension, and perimeter measures for sets of patches in a landscape.
r.le.pixel Contains a set of measures for attributes, diversity, texture, juxtaposition, and edge.
r.le.setup Interactive tool used to setup the sampling and analysis framework that will be used by the other r.le programs.
r.le.trace Displays the boundary of each r.le patch and shows how the boundary is traced, displays the attribute, size, perimeter and shape indices for each patch and saves the data in an output file.
r.li.cwed Calculates contrast weighted edge density index on a raster map
r.li.daemon Support module for r.li landscape index calculations.
r.li.dominance Calculates dominance's diversity index on a raster map
r.li.edgedensity Calculates edge density index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm
r.li Landscape structure analysis package overview.
r.li.mpa Calculates mean pixel attribute index on a raster map
r.li.mps Calculates mean patch size index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm
r.li.padcv Calculates coefficient of variation of patch area on a raster map
r.li.padrange Calculates range of patch area size on a raster map
r.li.padsd Calculates standard deviation of patch area a raster map
r.li.patchdensity Calculates patch density index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm
r.li.patchnum Calculates patch number index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm.
r.li.pielou Calculates Pielou's diversity index on a raster map
r.li.renyi Calculates Renyi's diversity index on a raster map
r.li.richness Calculates richness index on a raster map
r.li.setup Configuration editor for r.li.'index'
r.li.shannon Calculates Shannon's diversity index on a raster map
r.li.shape Calculates shape index on a raster map
r.li.simpson Calculates Simpson's diversity index on a raster map
r.los Line-of-sight raster analysis program.
r.mapcalc Raster map calculator.
r.mapcalculator Calculate new raster map from a r.mapcalc expression.
r.mask Creates a MASK for limiting raster operation.
r.median Finds the median of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.
r.mfilter.fp Raster map matrix filter.
r.mfilter Performs raster map matrix filter.
r.mode Finds the mode of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.
r.neighbors Makes each cell category value a function of the category values assigned to the cells around it, and stores new cell values in an output raster map layer.
r.null Manages NULL-values of given raster map.
r.out.arc Converts a raster map layer into an ESRI ARCGRID file.
r.out.ascii Converts a raster map layer into an ASCII text file.
r.out.bin Exports a GRASS raster map to a binary array.
r.out.gdal Exports GRASS raster maps into GDAL supported formats.
r.out.gdal.sh Exports GRASS raster into GDAL supported formats.
r.out.gridatb Exports GRASS raster map to GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL)
r.out.mat Exports a GRASS raster to a binary MAT-File.
r.out.mpeg Raster File Series to MPEG Conversion.
r.out.png Export GRASS raster as non-georeferenced PNG image.
r.out.pov Converts a raster map layer into a height-field file for POVRAY.
r.out.ppm3 Converts 3 GRASS raster layers (R,G,B) to a PPM image file at the pixel resolution of the CURRENTLY DEFINED REGION.
r.out.ppm Converts a GRASS raster map to a PPM image file at the pixel resolution of the currently defined region.
r.out.tiff Exports a GRASS raster map to a 8/24bit TIFF image file at the pixel resolution of the currently defined region.
r.out.vrml Export a raster map to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
r.out.vtk Converts raster maps into the VTK-Ascii format
r.out.xyz Export a raster map to a text file as x,y,z values based on cell centers.
r.pack Packs up a raster map and support files for copying.
r.param.scale Extracts terrain parameters from a DEM.
r.patch Creates a composite raster map layer by using known category values from one (or more) map layer(s) to fill in areas of "no data" in another map layer.
r.plane Creates raster plane map given dip (inclination), aspect (azimuth) and one point.
r.profile Outputs the raster map layer values lying on user-defined line(s).
r.proj Re-projects a raster map from one location to the current location.
r.quant Produces the quantization file for a floating-point map.
r.quantile Compute quantiles using two passes.
r.random.cells Generates random cell values with spatial dependence.
r.random Creates a raster map layer and vector point map containing randomly located points.
r.random.surface Generates random surface(s) with spatial dependence.
r.reclass.area Reclasses a raster map greater or less than user specified area size (in hectares).
r.reclass Reclassify raster map based on category values.
r.recode Recodes categorical raster maps.
r.region Sets the boundary definitions for a raster map.
r.regression.line Calculates linear regression from two raster maps: y = a + b*x.
r.report Reports statistics for raster map layers.
r.resamp.interp Resamples raster map layers to a finer grid using interpolation.
r.resample GRASS raster map layer data resampling capability.
r.resamp.rst Reinterpolates and optionally computes topographic analysis from input raster map to a new raster map (possibly with different resolution) using regularized spline with tension and smoothing.
r.resamp.stats Resamples raster map layers to a coarser grid using aggregation.
r.rescale.eq Rescales histogram equalized the range of category values in a raster map layer.
r.rescale Rescales the range of category values in a raster map layer.
r.ros Generates three, or four raster map layers showing 1) the base (perpendicular) rate of spread (ROS), 2) the maximum (forward) ROS, 3) the direction of the maximum ROS, and optionally 4) the maximum potential spotting distance.
r.series Makes each output cell value a function of the values assigned to the corresponding cells in the input raster map layers.
r.shaded.relief Creates shaded relief map from an elevation map (DEM).
r.sim.sediment Sediment transport and erosion/deposition simulation using path sampling method (SIMWE).
r.sim.water Overland flow hydrologic simulation using path sampling method (SIMWE).
r.slope.aspect Generates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and partial derivatives from a elevation raster map.
r.spread Simulates elliptically anisotropic spread on a graphics window and generates a raster map of the cumulative time of spread, given raster maps containing the rates of spread (ROS), the ROS directions and the spread origins.
r.spreadpath Recursively traces the least cost path backwards to cells from which the cumulative cost was determined.
r.statistics Calculates category or object oriented statistics.
r.stats Generates area statistics for raster map layers.
r.sum Sums up the raster cell values.
r.sun Solar irradiance and irradiation model.
r.sunmask Calculates cast shadow areas from sun position and elevation raster map.
r.support Allows creation and/or modification of raster map layer support files.
r.support.stats Update raster map statistics
r.surf.area Surface area estimation for rasters.
r.surf.contour Surface generation program from rasterized contours.
r.surf.fractal Creates a fractal surface of a given fractal dimension.
r.surf.gauss GRASS module to produce a raster map layer of gaussian deviates whose mean and standard deviation can be expressed by the user. It uses a gaussian random number generator.
r.surf.idw2 Surface generation program.
r.surf.idw Surface interpolation utility for raster map.
r.surf.random Produces a raster map of uniform random deviates whose range can be expressed by the user.
r.terraflow Flow computation for massive grids (float version).
r.texture Generate images with textural features from a raster map.
r.thin Thins non-zero cells that denote linear features in a raster map.
r.tileset Produces tilings of the source projection for use in the destination region and projection.
r.timestamp Modifies a timestamp for a raster map.
r.topidx Creates topographic index map from elevation raster map.
r.topmodel Simulates TOPMODEL which is a physically based hydrologic model.
r.to.rast3elev Creates a 3D volume map based on 2D elevation and value raster maps.
r.to.rast3 Converts 2D raster map slices to one 3D raster volume map.
r.to.vect Converts a raster map into a vector map.
r.transect Outputs raster map layer values lying along user defined transect line(s).
r.univar Calculates univariate statistics from the non-null cells of a raster map.
r.univar.sh calculates univariate statistics from a GRASS raster map
r.unpack Unpacks a raster map packed with r.pack.
r.volume Calculates the volume of data "clumps", and (optionally) produces a GRASS vector points map containing the calculated centroids of these clumps.
r.walk Creates a raster map showing the anisotropic cumulative cost of moving between different geographic locations on an input raster map whose cell category values represent cost.
r.water.outlet Watershed basin creation program.
r.watershed Watershed basin analysis program.
r.what.color Queries colors for a raster map layer.
r.what Queries raster map layers on their category values and category labels.



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© 2003-2016 GRASS Development Team, GRASS GIS 6.4.6svn Reference Manual